Ithkuil: A Philosophical Design for a Hypothetical Language

   

 

 

   
Home   Introduction 4 Case Morphology 8 Adjuncts 12 The Number System
FAQs   1 Phonology 5 Verb Morphology 9 Syntax List of Abbreviations
Links of Interest   2 Morpho-Phonology 6 More Verb Morphology 10 Lexico-Semantics The Lexicon
Updates / News   3 Basic Morphology 7 Suffixes 11 The Writing System Texts

 


List of Morphological Abbreviations

1+ M

personal reference:  speaker + mixed 3rd party

1+2m

personal reference:  speaker + monadic listener

1+2m+M

personal reference:  speaker + monadic  listener + mixed 3rd party

1+2m+ma

personal reference:  speaker + monadic listener + monadic animate 3rd party

1+2m+mi

personal reference:  speaker + monadic listener + monadic inanimate 3rd party

1+2m+ua

personal reference:  speaker + monadic listener + unbounded animate 3rd party

1+2m+ui

personal reference:  speaker + monadic listener + unbounded inanimate 3rd party

1+2u

personal reference:  speaker + unbounded listener

1+2u+M

personal reference:  speaker + unbounded listener + mixed 3rd party

1+2u+ma

personal reference:  speaker + unbounded listener + monadic animate 3rd party

1+2u+mi

personal reference:  speaker + unbounded listener + monadic inanimate 3rd party

1+2u+ua

personal reference:  speaker + unbounded listener + unbounded animate 3rd party

1+2u+ui

personal reference:  speaker + unbounded listener + unbounded inanimate 3rd party

1+ma

personal reference:  speaker + monadic animate 3rd party

1+mi

personal reference:  speaker + monadic inanimate 3rd party

1+ua

personal reference:  speaker + unbounded animate 3rd party

1+ui

personal reference:  speaker + unbounded inanimate 3rd party

2m

personal reference:  monadic listener

2m+M

personal reference:  monadic listener + mixed 3rd party

2m+ma

personal reference:  monadic listener + monadic animate 3rd party

2m+mi

personal reference:  monadic listener + monadic inanimate 3rd party

2m+ua

personal reference:  monadic listener + unbounded animate 3rd party

2m+ui

personal reference:  monadic listener + unbounded inanimate 3rd party

2u

personal reference:  unbounded listener

2u+M

personal reference:  unbounded listener + mixed 3rd party

2u+ma

personal reference:  unbounded listener + monadic animate 3rd party

2u+mi

personal reference:  unbounded listener + monadic inanimate 3rd party

2u+ua

personal reference:  unbounded listener + unbounded animate 3rd party

2u+ui

personal reference:  unbounded listener + unbounded inanimate 3rd party

A

Abstract perspective

ABE

Abessive case

ABL

Ablative case

ABS

Absolutive case

Abt

personal reference:  Abstract referent

ACC

Accordative modality

ACP

Acceptive bias

ACQ

Suffix: Acquisition 

ACS

Accessive case

ACT

Activative case

ADM

Admonitive illocution

ADV

Advocative modality

AFF

Affective case

AFM

Affirmative validation

AFI

Affinitive format

AFT

Suffix:  Degree of Affect

AGC

Suffix:  Degree of Agency

AGG

Aggregative configuration

AGN

Suffix:  Degree of Agency, Intent or Effectiveness

ALG

Allegative sanction

ALL

Allative case

ALP

Allapsive case

AMG

Amalgamative context

ANT

Anticipative modality

APL

Applicative case

APR

Suffix:  Degree of Contextual Appropriateness

APT

Suffix:  Various Aspects

ASC

Ascriptive mood

ASI

Assimilative case

ASM

Assumptive mood

ASO

Associative affiliation

ASP

Aspirative modality

ASR

Assertive illocution

ASS

Assessive case

ASU

Assurative bias

ATC

Suffix:  Degree Of Anticipation

ATH

Authoritative format

ATN

Suffix:  Degree of Attention or Determination

ATT

Attributive case

AUT

Suffix: Authorization

AVR

Aversive case

AXM

Axiomatic sanction

BEH

Suffix: Degree of Subjective Effect or Behavioral Appropriateness

BEN

Benefactive case

BOD

Suffix:  Bodily Instrumentality = ‘by means of’

CAL

Suffix: Calendrical Sequencing - days, months, years, decades, centuries, millenia

CAP

Suffix:  Degree of Potential or Capability

CCL

Conclusive aspect

CCM

Concommitant format

CFD

Suffix:  Degree of Forthrightness, Confidence or Humility

CGL

Suffix:  Motive/Reason for Conglomeration/Coming Together of Gestalt Entity

CLA

Classificative case

CLM

Climactic aspect

CLS

Compulsory modality

CML

Compulsive modality

CMM

Commutative case

CMP

Comparative case

CMP1A

Comparative 1A case

CMP1B

Comparative 1B case

CMP1C

Comparative 1C case

CMP2A

Comparative 2A case

CMP2B

Comparative 2B case

CMP2C

Comparative 2C case

CMP3A

Comparative 3A case

CMP3B

Comparative 3B case

CMP3C

Comparative 3C case

CMP4A

Comparative 4A case

CMP4B

Comparative 4B case

CMP4C

Comparative 4C case

CMP5A

Comparative 5A case

CMP5B

Comparative 5B case

CMP5C

Comparative 5C case

CMP6A

Comparative 6A case

CMP6B

Comparative 6B case

CMP6C

Comparative 6C case

CMP7A

Comparative 7A case

CMP7B

Comparative 7B case

CMP7C

Comparative 7C case

CMP8A

Comparative 8A case

CMP8B

Comparative 8B case

CMP8C

Comparative 8C case

CNC

Suffix:  Degree of Concern or Consideration

CNF

Confirmative validation

CNG

Contingent valence

CNJ

Conjunctive case

CNM

Suffix:  Type of Container/Packaging/Conveyance/Holder

CNQ

Suffix:  Degree of Consequentiality, Finality or Irrevocability

CNR

Concursive case

CNS

Suffix:  Degree of Consent

CNT

Continuative aspect

CNV

Conductive case

COA

Coalescent affiliation

COH

Coherent configuration

COI

Coincidental bias

Col

personal reference:  collective entity

COM

Comitative case

CON

Concessive case

COO

Suffix:  Adjunctive Coordination

COR

Correlative case

COS

Suffix:  Comparison Specifications (Used with Levels ) - see Section 6.2 and Section 6.2.5

COU

Counterfactive mood

CPC

Capacitative modality

CPL

Complementary valence

CPN

Componential configuration

CPS

Compositive case

CPT

Completive version

CRD

Credential modality

CRI

Suffix:  Cycle or circular motion in place (spin, revolve)

CRO

Corollary valence

CRR

Corrective bias

CRS

Contrastive case

CRV

Suffix:  Cycle or circular motion over linear vector (e.g., train wheels, bike wheels)

CSD

Considerative case

CSL

Consolidative affiliation

CSM

Consumptive aspect

CSQ

Consequential aspect

CSS

Cessative aspect

CST

Composite configuration

CTC

Suffix:  Degree of Contact

CTN

Suffix:  Degree of Contrariness to Expectation(s) or Shift in Subject

CTP

Contemptive bias

CTR

Suffix:  Contrastive Coordination

CTV

Contemplative bias

CTX

Contextual phase

CUL

Culminative aspect

CVS

Conversive case

CVT

Suffix:  Degree of Covertness versus Overtness

CVY

Suffix: Means of Transportation/Conveyance

CYN

Cynical bias

DAT

Dative case

DBI

Suffix:  Additional Bodily Instrumentality = ‘by means of’

DCI

Suffix:  Decrease then Increase

DCL

Disclusive aspect

DCR

Suffix:  Decrease

DCS

Suffix:  Degree of Decisiveness, Commitment or Emphasis

DCT

Discrete configuration

DCV

Decisive modality

DEC

Declarative illocution

DEF

Suffix:  Degree Of Definiteness

DEL

Delimitive extension

DEM

Demonstrative valence

DEP

Dependent case

DER

Derivative case

DES

Desiderative modality

DEV

Suffix:  Degree of Development

DEX

Suffix:  Deixis Categories

DFC

Deficient level

DFF

Diffusive case

DGR

Suffix:  Exactness of Degree

DIR

Directive illocution

DLB

Suffix:  Degree of Deliberateness/Agency

DPL

Depletive extension

DPR

Suffix:  Dispersion or Separability of a Configurative Set

DPT

Suffix: Depiction/Representation/Record

DPV

Desperative bias

DPX

Duplex configuration

DRC

Suffix:  Degree of Directness

DSC

Descriptive function

DSG

Suffix:  Degree of Design or Purposefulness

DSM

Dismissive bias

DSP

Dispositive modality

DSR

Suffix:  Degree Of Discretion

DST

Suffix:  Distributive Coordination

DUB

Dubitative validation

DUP

Duplicative valence

DVR

Divertive modality

DVT

Devotive modality

DXX

Suffix:  Additional Deixis Categories

DYN

Dynamic function

Ea

personal reference:  universal animate

EFC

Effective version

EFF

Effectuative Case

EFI

Suffix:  Degree of Efficiency or Efficacy

EFT

Suffix:  Degree of Effort

Ei

personal reference:  universal inanimate

ELP

Elapsive case

ENG

Suffix:  Degree of Engagement/Involvement

ENB

Suffix:  Degree of Enablement

EPD

Expeditive aspect

EPI

Epistemic sanction

EPS

Episodic case

EQU

Equative level

ERG

Ergative case

ERR

Suffix:  Degree of Correctness versus Error

ESS

Essive case

EUP

Euphemistic bias

EXA

Exasperative bias

EXC

Exceptive case

EXD

Suffix:  Dynamically Changing Degree or Extent

EXH

Exhortative modality

EXN

Suffix:  Degree or Extent

EXP

Experiential aspect

EXS

Existential context

EXT

Suffix:  Exactness of Identity / Identity As a Referent Or Standard

EXV

Expatiative sanction

EPC

Expectative modality

FAC

Factual mood

FAM

Suffix:  Degree Of Familiarity

FEA

Suffix: Featural Properties 

FLC

Fluctuative phase

FLS

Suffix:  Degree of Fluctuation/Stability

FML

Formal designation

FMS

Suffix: Material States/Forms (non-solid or quasi-solid) 

FNC

Functional context

FNS

Suffix:  Material States/Forms (solids) 

FRAMED

Framed relation

FRC

Suffix:  Degree of Physical Force Exerted

FRE

Frequentative phase

FRG

Fragmentative phase

FRM

Suffix:  Degree of Formality

FRQ

Suffix:  Degree Of Frequency

FUN

Functive case

GEN

Genitive case

GRA

Graduative extension

GRT

Gratificative bias

HAB

Habitual aspect

HOR

Hortative illocution

HPB

Hyperbolic bias

HRC

Suffix:  Position on Social, Occupational, or (Para-) Military Hierarchy

HYP

Hypothetical mood

ICD

Suffix:  Increase then Decrease

ICL

Inclinative modality

ICP

Incipient extension

ICR

Suffix:  Increase

ICS

Incessative aspect

IDa

personal reference:  indefinite animate

IDC

Indicative valence

IDG

Indignative bias

IDi

personal reference:  indefinite inanimate

IDP

Interdependent case

IDR

Suffix:  Random/Varying Increases and Decreases

IFL

Informal designation

IFR

Inferior level

IMD

Intermediative aspect

IMM

Imminent aspect

IMP

Suffix:  Degree of Impact on Patient/Target or Enablement of Outcome

IMS

Impositive modality

IMT

Imitative valence

INB

Suffix: Inability/Incapacity Due To 

INC

Incompletive version

IND

Inducive case

INE

Ineffectual version

INF

Inferential validation

INL

Suffix:  Degree Of Inclusion

INP

Interpolative case

INS

Instrumental case

IPa

personal reference:  impersonal animate

IPB

Improbable validation

IPi

personal reference:  impersonal in animate

IPL

Implicative mood

IPS

Impressional modality

IPT

Suffix: Degree of importance/impact/signficance

IPU

Imputative sanction

IRG

Interrogative illocution

IRO

Ironic bias

ISR

Instrumentative format

ITC

Intercommutative aspect

ITG

Suffix:  Degree of Intelligence Manifested

ITM

Intermittent phase

ITN

Suffix:  Degree of Iteration

ITP

Interpretative case

ITR

Iterative phase

ITU

Intuitive validation

ITV

Intentive modality

ITY

Suffix:  Degree of Speed (i.e., Intensity of Movement or Change)

LAT

Suffix:  Degree Of Lateness/Earliness

LCT

Suffix:  Locational Octant Markers for Object Being Located (see Section 10.3.3)

LIM

Limitative case

LOC

Locative case

LTL

Literal bias

LVL

Suffix:  Levels (see Sec. 6.2)

M

Monadic perspective

ma

personal reference:  monadic animate 3rd party

MAT

Suffix:  Degree of Maturation

MD01

Suffix:  resigned to

MD02

Suffix:  devoted; committed to / devoted to

MD03

Suffix:  desired / sought-after; want to

MD04

Suffix:  attempted, attempt at a …; try to, attempt to

MD05

Suffix:  capable, able; can / able to / capable of

MD06

Suffix:  knowledgeable; can = know how to / familiar with

MD07

Suffix:  mandatory; must / have to

MD08

Suffix:  required; should / be to

MD09

Suffix:  expected; be supposed to

MD10

Suffix:  intended; mean to / intend to / shall

MD11

Suffix:  chosen, selected; choose to / elect to

MD12

Suffix:  …on impulse; feel like X-ing

MD13

Suffix:  promised; promise to

MD14

Suffix:  well-liked; like (to)

MD15

Suffix:  feared; fear (to)

MD16

Suffix:  willing; willing to

MD17

Suffix:  prepared / ready; prepared to/ready to

MD18

Suffix:  necessary / needed; need to

MD19

Suffix:  Daring; dare to

MD20

Suffix:  decided-upon; decide to

MD21

Suffix:  offered/offer of; offer to

MD22

Suffix:  aided / assisted; help to / aid in X-ing

MD24

Suffix:  not unexpected; be prone to / be apt to / tend to

MD25

Suffix:  agreed-upon; agree to

MD26

Suffix:  responsible for/in charge of

MD27

Suffix:  remember to

MD28

Suffix:  feel a need to / feel one should / feel one must / feel driven to

MD29

Suffix:  to guess or think [that]…

MD30

Suffix:  available; available to/for

MD31

Suffix:  potential; can = have potential to

MD32

Suffix:  permitted; can = permitted to

MD33

Suffix:  hoped-for; hope/wish to

MDL

Suffix:  Random pattern of modulation (unpredictable/irregular movement pattern)

MDN

Suffix:  Degree of Age or Modernity

MEC

Suffix:  Type of Mechanical Instrumentality = ‘by means of’

MED

Mediative case

MET

Suffix:  Metonymic Categories

mi

personal reference:  monadic inanimate 3rd party

MIN

Minimal level

MLR

Suffix: Meta-level representation/coordination/analysis

MLT

Multiform configuration

MNF

Manifestive function

MNO

Monoactive valence

MOT

Suffix:  Degree of Self-Conscious Deliberation or Motivation

MTA

Suffix:  Additional Motivation for an Action or State

MTV

Motive aspect

MUT

Mutual valence

MVT

Suffix:  Degree of Stillness/Movement

Mx

personal reference:  mixed third party (animate + inanimate and/or monadic + unbounded)

N

Gnomic perspective

NA1

Suffix:  Negation/affirmation of all morphological components

NA2

Suffix:  Negation/affirmation of stem + affixes but not adjunct information

NA3

Suffix:  Negation/affirmation of all morphological components except Modality

NAR

Suffix:  Negation/affirmation of all but aspectual or Modality information

NAV

Navigative case

NEC

Necessitative modality

NEW

Suffix:  Degree of Newness/Revision

NNN

Suffix:  n-numbered angles/facets/faces/sides/points/forms

NNR

Nonrelational valence

NRM

Normal essence

NTR

Suffix:  Degree of Notoriety, Acceptance, Respect, Honor

OAU

Suffix: Origin/Association/Utilization 

OBG

Obligative modality

OBJ

Objective format

OBL

Oblique case

Obv

personal reference:  obviative

OGN

Originative case

OPF

Suffix: Degree of Operational Functionality

OPR

Opportunitive modality

OPT

Optimal level

ORI

Orientative case

PAR

Partitive case

PAU

Pausal aspect

PCL

Preclusive aspect

PCN

Suffix:  Degree of Care, Precision or Scrutiny

PCR

Postcursive case

PCS

Precessive aspect

PCT

Punctual phase

PCV

Precursive case

PDC

Productive case

PER

Periodic case

PFT

Preferential modality

PHS

Suffix:  Phase categories

PHY

Suffix:  Degree of Physical Control

PLA

Suffix:  Place, State, Setting Where…

PLE

Suffix: Degree of (Un-)Pleasantness (of Effect or Result) 

PLM

Prolimitive case

PLV

Suffix:  polarity / logical valence values

PMP

Preemptive aspect

PMS

Promissory modality

POS

Possessive case

PPS

Propositional sanction

PPT

Purportive validation

PPT2

Purportive 2 validation

PPV

Propositive bias

PRB

Suffix:  Degree of Probability or Likelihood

PRC

Processual version

PRD

Predicative case

PRE

Preparative modality

PRG

Progressive aspect

PRL

Parallel valence

PRM

Permissive modality

PRO

Prolapsive case

PRP

Proprietive case

PRS

Prospective aspect

PRT

Precurrent format

PRX

Proximal extension

PSM

Presumptive validation

PSM2

Presumptive 2 validation

PST

Positive version

PSV

Procursive case

PTC

Protractive aspect

PTF

Suffix:  Part/Whole Functional Metaphors

PTG

Suffix:  Part/Whole Gestalt Componential Metaphors

PTI

Participative valence

PTL

Postulative case

PTN

Potential modality

PTT

Suffix:  Non-Contiguous (i.e., Intermixed) Portion of the Whole

PTV

Proclivitive modality

PTW

Suffix:  Contiguous Portion of the Whole

PTY

Suffix:  Degree of Prototypicalness

PUR

Purposive case

PUT

Putative validation

PVS

Provisional case

PXM

Suffix:  Degree of Proximity

QUA

Suffix:  Degree of Quality, Effectiveness or Adequacy

RAC

Reactive bias

RCO

Suffix:  Recoil in place (spring back; snap back; fall back into place)

RCP

Reciprocal valence

RCS

Recessative aspect

RCT

Recurrent phase

REA

Suffix:  Degree of Genuineness or Veracity

REB

Rebuttative sanction

REF

Referential case

REG

Regulative aspect

REP

Repetitive phase

REQ

Requisitive modality

RES

Resistive valence

RFU

Refutative sanction

RGR

Regressive aspect

RNC

Suffix: Renunciation 

ROL

Suffix:  Role

RPN

Suffix:  Pattern of Spatio-Temporal Repetition or Distribution of Set Members

RPS

Representational context

RPT

Reportive validation

RPV

Representative essence

RSL

Resultative format

RSM

Resumptive aspect

RSN

Suffix:  Reason for an Emotional State or Motivation for an Action

RTR

Retrospective aspect

RVL

Revelative bias

SBE

Subequative level

SBQ

Subsequent format

SBS

Suffix:  Subset of Configurative Set

SBT

Suffix:  Degree of Subtlety

SCH

Schematic format

SCO

Suffix:  Dynamic Change of Size

SCS

Suffix:  Degree of Success versus Failure

SCT

Suffix:  Degree of Shift/Change/Transition (used for both spatial and temporal contexts)

SDP

Suffix:  Subset of Duplex Set

SEG

Segmentative configuration

SEL

Selective bias

SEP

Suffix:  Spatio-Temporal Separability of a Configurative Set

SEQ

Suffix:  Numerical Sequence

SGS

Suggestive bias

SIM

Suffix:  Degree Of Similarity

SIT

Situative case

SIZ

Suffix:  Degree of Size

SKP

Skeptical bias

SML

Simultaneitive case

SOC

Suffix:  Type of Social Instrumentality = ‘by means of’

SOL

Solicitive bias

SPD

Suffix:  Degree of Speed (i.e., Velocity = Distance Over Time)

SPE

Speculative mood

SPQ

Superequative level

SPH

Suffix:  Degree of Sophistication

SPL

Superlative level

SPS

Suffix: Supersets/Multi-Level Gestalts 

SQC

Suffix:  Sequence of Cause and Effect

SQN

Sequential aspect

SQT

Suffix:  Sequence Relative to Present Context

SSD

Suffix:  Stem-Specific Derivatives

STA

Stative function

STG

Suffix: Stage of a Process 

STR

Suffix:  Degree of Physical Strength Possible or Used

STU

Stupefactive bias

SUB

Subjunctive mood

SUD

Suffix:  Degree of Suddenness

SUF

Suffix:  Degree Of Sufficiency

SUR

Surpassive level

SWR

Suffix:  Switch-reference

TAL

Suffix: Degree of Capacity or Talent For 

TEM

Suffix:  Alternative Temporal Aspects

TEN

Tentative validation

TFI

Suffix:  Back & forth; to & fro in place (e.g., pendulum, wagging tail)

TFM

Transformative case

TFV

Suffix:  Back & forth over linear vector (e.g., snake-like; zig-zag)

THR

Theoretical sanction

TMP

Temporary aspect

TNS

Transitional aspect

TPD

Suffix: Temporary Duration 

TPF

Suffix:  Topic, Frame and Focus

TPI

Suffix:  Impact or Duration Over Time

TPP

Suffix:  Temporal Position Relative to Present

TPR

Suffix:  Temporal Placement/Reaction/Viewpoint

TRD

Tardative aspect

TRF

Suffix: Transformation for Use

TRM

Terminative extension

TSP

Transpositive case

TYP

Suffix:  Degree of Typicalness

U

Unbounded perspective

ua

personal reference:  unbounded animate 3rd party

ui

personal reference:  unbounded inanimate 3rd party

UNFRAMED

Unframed relation

UNI

Uniplex configuration

UNQ

Suffix:  Degree of Specialness or Uniqueness

UTE

Suffix:  Utilitative or Enabling Means

UTL

Utilitative case

VAR

Variative affiliation

VOC

Vocative case

VOL

Voluntative modality

VWP

Suffix: From Viewpoint/Perspective Of 

WAK

Suffix:  Spread/wake/trail/area/expanse created by passage of entity

XPT

Suffix:  Expectation of Outcome

 

 

 

   

 

 

   
Home   Introduction 4 Case Morphology 8 Adjuncts 12 The Number System
FAQs   1 Phonology 5 Verb Morphology 9 Syntax List of Abbreviations
Links of Interest   2 Morpho-Phonology 6 More Verb Morphology 10 Lexico-Semantics The Lexicon
Updates / News   3 Basic Morphology 7 Suffixes 11 The Writing System Texts

 

Cover of Ithkuil Grammar book

 

For those who would like a copy of the Ithkuil Grammar
in book form, it is now available!

And while you’re at it, you can check out the novel I co-
wrote
with my twin brother Paul, also now available!

(It’s a political thriller/science fiction story that explores the
philosophical implications of quantum physics, and features
Ithkuil as a “para-linguistic” interface to a quantum computer.)

Cover of "Beyond Antimony" by John & Paul Quijada

 

 

 

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