A GRAMMAR OF NEW ITHKUIL

A CONSTRUCTED LANGUAGE

 

 

Introduction

4  Case Morphology

8  Adjuncts

12  The Writing System

1  Phonology

5  Verb Morphology

9  Referentials

13  Numbers

2  Morpho-Phonology

6  More Verb Morphology

10  Special Constructions

14  The Lexicon

3  Basic Morphology

7  Affixes

11  Syntax

Appendices

 

 

 

 

8.0   ADJUNCTS

 

Adjuncts were introduced in Sec. 2.5.  They are placed adjacent to a formative to provide further grammatical or semantic information about the formative. There are seven types of Adjuncts:  Affixual, Modular, Register, Suppletive, Mood/Case-Scope, Bias, and the Parsing Adjunct, each explained in the sub-sections below.

 

8.1   Affixual Adjuncts

 

As an alternative to placing VXCS affixes within Slots V or VII of a formative, such affixes may instead by shown by means of adjuncts placed immediately preceding the formative with which they are associated (unless the formative would otherwise be the last word of a sentence, in which case the adjunct may be placed after the formative if desired).  There are two types of affixual adjuncts:  a single-affix adjunct and a multiple-affix adjunct, as explained below.

 

 

8.1.1   Single-Affix Adjunct

 

This adjunct associates a single VXCS affix to the following formative and provides scoping information over the formative’s other VXCS affixes.  The tell-tale sign of this adjunct is the V-C-(V) form containing only one full consonant-form.  Examples:  ač,  iakse,  etra,  usmú,  aull.

 

’VXCS

VS

Stress

single standard VXCS  affix

(a) =  affix applies to stem only (not to its CA) and has scope over all Slot V affixes (i.e., as if it were the last affix in Slot V)

u      =    affix applies to stem only (not to its CA) and is subordinate to all Slot V affixes (i.e., as if it were the first affix in Slot V)

e  =  affix applies to both Stem and CA and has scope over all Slot VII affixes (i.e., as if it were the last affix in Slot VII)

 i   =  affix applies to both Stem and CA and is subordinate to all Slot VII affixes (i.e., as if it were the first affix in Slot VII)

o  =  affix has scope over the entire formative as a whole, including Valence, Mood or Case, Illocution/Validation, etc.

ö  =  affix has scope over the entire  formative as a whole as well as other adjacent adjuncts including a modular adjunct

Penultimate stress = default

Ultimate stress =  affix applies to concatenated stem only

 

 

Example:

 

Adři  wimžuowêi  muyum.

SBS1/1-[Slot.VII/1st.position]     [default CA]-stem2/cpt-‘sexual.relations’-epd-usp     ma-ind+ind-ma

‘They had sex in a hurry.’

 

 

 

8.1.2   Multiple-Affix Adjunct

 

This adjunct associates two or more affixes to a formative.  The tell-tale sign is that the second consonant-form will consist either of -h- or a non-root consonant preceded by a glottal-stop (’h, ’w, ’y, ’hw, ’hl, or ’hr).  Examples:  dohast,  stei’yaikra,  ëjgi’woftôm,  via’hwobrigli. 

               

(ë-)CSVX

CZ

VXCS...

VZ

Stress

single reversed 
VXCS  affix.

 

Initial CS  may be preceded by ë- if phonotactically necessary

 h  =  preceding affix applies to the stem only (not to its CA) and has scope over all Slot V affixes (i.e., as if it were the last affix in Slot V)

’h  =  preceding affix applies to the stem only (not to its CA) and is subordinate to all Slot V affixes (i.e., as if it were the first affix in Slot V)

’hl =  preceding affix applies to both Stem and CA and has scope over all Slot VII affixes (i.e., as if it were the last affix in Slot VII)

’hr    =    preceding affix applies to both Stem and CA and is subordinate to all Slot VII affixes (i.e., as if it were the first affix in Slot VII)

hw    =    preceding affix has scope over the entire formative as a whole, including Valence, Mood or Case, Illocution/Validation, etc.

’hw = preceding affix has scope over the entire  formative as a whole as well as other adjacent adjuncts including a modular adjunct

standard 
VXCS  affix(es)

 

a =   2nd and subsequent affixes apply to stem only (not to its CA) and have scope over all Slot V affixes (i.e., as if they  were the last affix in Slot V)

u  =  2nd and subsequent affixes apply to stem only (not to its CA) and are subordinate to all Slot V affixes (i.e., as if they were the first affix in Slot V)

e   =  2nd and subsequent affixes apply to both Stem and CA and have scope over all Slot VII affixes (i.e., as if they were the last affix in Slot VII)

 i    =  2nd and subsequent affixes apply to both Stem and CA and are subordinate to all Slot VII affixes (i.e., as if they were the first affix in Slot VII)

o   =  2nd and subsequent affixes have scope over the entire formative as a whole, including Valence, Mood or Case, Illocution/Validation, etc.

ö   =  2nd and subsequent affixes have scope over the entire  formative as a whole as well as other adjacent adjuncts including a modular adjunct

(ai)  =  2nd and subsequent affixes have the same scope as shown by CZ

Penultimate stress = default

Ultimate stress =  affixes apply to concatenated stem only

 

 

A Type-3 VXCS affix used in an affixual adjunct associates to the VXCS affix named by VZ , e.g., if VZ = a, it associates to the last affix in Slot V.

 

Example:

 

Wütruöwá   kru   ëţcëu’hlievče     kšireö.

[default CA]-stem3/cpt-‘go.away’-lim-obs    pa+1m/ben/ind    EML2/5-[Slot.VII/last.position]-AVS3/2-[Slot.VII/last.position]        clown’-obj-g- rsl

‘We left just in time to avoid being turned into clowns.’

 

 

 

8.2   Modular Adjuncts

 

This adjunct has two slots corresponding to formative Slot VIII (showing Valence, Phase, Level, or Effect, in combination with Mood/Case-Scope, or showing Aspect plus Mood/Case-Scope); it can also show a single lone Aspect.  When used with concatenated formatives, it normally applies to both the concatenated and parent stems but can be marked to apply to either one separately.  The tell-tale sign of this adjunct is the absence of any full consonant forms other than possibly a single -n- or -ň-; the only otherwise permissible consonants are -w-, -y-, or a form consisting of or beginning with -h-. 

 

The structure of the adjunct is shown below.  Slots 2 and 3 can be “mixed and matched” to show any combination of the Slot VIII categories, including differing iterations of the same category (e.g., to show multiple aspects).  Slots 1 and 4 are mandatory; the other slots are optional.  Default MNO-FAC/CCN Valence+Mood/Case-Scope is zero-marked in Slot 2.  Information in each successive slot scopes over the previous slot, but the adjunct as a whole does not have scope beyond its default formative Slot VIII, unless the VH value in Slot 4 of the adjunct indicates a different and specialized pattern of scoping.

 

Structure of a Modular Adjunct

1

2

3

4

  or  w-  or  y-

Valence/Phase/Level/Effect + Mood/Case-Scope
OR  Aspect + Mood/Case-Scope 

[same as Column 2]

Aspect or Valence/Phase/Level/Effect
or Specialized Scope of the Adjunct

w = adjunct applies to the parent formative only

y = adjunct applies to the concatenated formative only

(VN CN

(VN CM))

VN or VH 

CN  = h / hl / hr / hm / hn /

 

For Aspect: 
CN
  = w~y / hw / hrw / hmw / hnw / hňw

CM  = n if VN represents an Aspect, otherwise CM  = ň

·      If only Slots 1 and 4 are filled, then Slot 4 = Aspect;

·      If Slot 2 or Slots 2 and 3 are filled and stress is penultimate, then Slot 4 = Valence or Phase or Level or Effect; 

·      If Slot 2 or Slots 2 and 3 are filled and stress is ultimate, then Slot 4 = VH whose values are shown below.

 

Slot 4 VH values (if the adjunct has ultimate stress):

 

a    =   affixes in Slots 2, 3, and 4 have successive right-to-left scope order over each other (Slot 2 < Slot 3 < Slot 4) and have scope over Case/Mood and Validation + Illocution + Expectation

 

e   =   affixes in Slots 2, 3, and 4 have successive right-to-left scope order over each other (Slot 2 < Slot 3 < Slot 4) and have scope over Case/Mood

 

i/u =  affixes in Slots 2, 3, and 4 have successive right-to-left scope order over each other (Slot 2 < Slot 3 < Slot 4) and have scope over the formative as a whole but not any adjacent affixual adjuncts (do not use if adjacent affixual adjunct’s VS, CZ, or VZ values show scope over a modular adjunct)

 

o   =   affixes in Slots 2, 3, and 4 have successive right-to-left scope order over each other (Slot 2 < Slot 3 < Slot 4) and have scope over the formative as a whole including any adjacent affixual adjuncts (do not use if adjacent affixual adjunct’s VS, CZ, or VZ values show scope over a modular adjunct)

 

NOTE:  If formative Slot VIII shows default Valence + Mood/Case-Scope (and no Aspect, Phase, Level, or Effect values are shown), then any VNCN values in a modular adjunct apply as if they were the Slot VIII values.  If the formative shows a non-default Slot VIII value for a certain category, and a modular adjunct shows a different value for the same category (assuming it even makes semantic sense to do so), the modular adjunct value scopes over the Slot VIII value.

 

Example:

 

Wähňainui  hlešvie-willyû  pra’i.

[Scope:parent]-PRL-HYP-RSM-FLC    concatenated/[default CA]:stem2/prc-‘self-involved.leisure.activity’-pur+parent:[default CA]-stem2/prc/dyn- ‘sing.a.song’-itu   ma/ben+1m/ben-act

‘She and I might’ve resumed randomly bursting into snippets of song for fun.’

 

 

 

8.3   Register Adjuncts

 

The category of Register indicates the mode of personal communication of a word or sentence, the default unmarked value being a general narrative.  Marked registers indicate intra-sentence or intra-narrative changes in the mode of personal communication to a mode other than a general narrative. These alternative modes of communication (i.e., non-narrative registers) include direct speech, a parenthetical “aside”, one’s personal cogitation/deliberation, or an unwilled or subjective impression.

 

Register is indicated by a specialized adjunct placed at the start of the word or phrase constituting the registered speech, followed by a counterpart adjunct placed immediately afterward to indicate the end of the registered speech.  These adjuncts constitute a single vowel-form preceded by h-.  A non-narrative register clause may be pronounced with low pitch on the last word of the clause, in which case the register clause does not require the end-register final adjunct listed below.  If the word/phrase within the register is a proper name or foreign word/phrase, indicate this by ending the register clause using the car end-register adjunct .

 

Register

Initial Adjunct

Final Adjunct

 

1  If the identification of the preceding referent is not a proper name, use PNT register instead.

 

2  Use the CAR end-adjunct marker for any register where the referent within the register clause is a proper name or a foreign word/phrase.

NRR

narrative (default register)

DSV

discursive (direct speech)

ha

(hai)

PNT

parenthetical (parenthetical aside)

he

(hei)

SPF

specificative   (proper name of preceding referent) 1

hi

(hiu)

EXM

exemplificative (‘for example, ...’)

ho

(hoi)

CGT

cogitant (silent/subjective thoughts) 

hu

(hui)

END

carrier-end   end of term/phrase governed by carrier stem/adjunct 2

(hü)

 

Note:  Since Sec. 1.5 external juncture rules do not apply to foreign names/words, insert a pause after uttering the name/words prior to the car adjunct or the spf final adjunct hiu, or pronounce the last word of the proper name/phrase with low tone.

 

The Registers are explained in further detail below:

 

 

8.3.1     NRR    Narrative

The default register, indicating a general narrative statement. Also used for formal narration, as when telling the events a story from an omniscient narrator’s perspective.  Unmarked.

 

 

8.3.2     DSV    Discursive

Indicates a phrase/statement represents direct speech, as in ‘His wife turned to him and said “You’ve forgotten your hat.”’ 

 

 

8.3.3     PNT    Parenthetical

Indicates a phrase/statement is a parenthetical aside, or the equivalent to an in-line footnote, as in ‘All equine species in Eurasia (we needn’t bother with those in the Americas) can be shown to be quadrupeds,’ or ‘I generally prefer coffee to tea on summer afternoons – over ice, of course – but sometimes only a beer will do, ’ or ‘That artist’s landscapes (you should see his portraits!) are simply sublime.’

 

 

8.3.4     SPF     Specificative

Indicates the proper name of the immediately preceding referent.  Note that if the identification of the preceding referent is not a proper name, use PNT register instead.

 

 

8.3.5     EXM     Exemplificative

Indicates the word/phrase constitutes an illustrative example for the preceding formative or phrase.  Translates a clause in English beginning with ‘for example,...’.

 

 

8.3.6     COG     Cogitant

Indicates a phrase/statement represents silent thoughts or beliefs. Equivalent to various devices in natural languages for indicating silent thoughts/beliefs within a narrative, as in the use of italics within a written paragraph, or the sudden interjection of a character’s disembodied voice on the soundtrack of a film/video while the character visually doesn’t open their mouth.

 

 

8.3.7     END   Carrier-End

Indicates the end of a term or phrase governed either by the carrier stem or a carrier adjunct.  Use the CAR end-adjunct marker for any register where the referent within the register clause is a proper name or a foreign word/phrase.  (See Sec. 10.2 regarding the Carrier Stem and Sec. 8.4.1 regarding the Carrier Adjunct).

 

 

 

8.4   Suppletive Adjuncts

 

These are a series of adjuncts of the form CP + VC where CP is a bi-consonantal form beginning with h- specifying the nature of the adjunct, while VC is the case-marker from Formative Slot IX. The tell-tale sign of these adjuncts is the initial h+consonant with no subsequent consonant forms. The last word of the word, phrase or name identified by the adjunct can be indicated by the adjunct form if necessary, or by pronouncing that word/phrase/name with low tone.

 

Use of these adjuncts implies CCN Case-scope; if the case-framed word/phrase/name has non-default Case-scope, use either a full carrier-stem or a preceding adjunct to show the case-scope.

 

The CP affix of these adjuncts may be used in the C1 Slot of a Single--, Dual-, or Combination Referential (see Sec. 9.5).  When so used, the CP affix must be preceded by a word-initial epenthetic vowel to avoid the adjunct being mistaken for a modular adjunct or a concatenated formative.  See Sec. 9.6 for the specific rules involved.

 

 

8.4.1   CAR   Carrier Adjunct

 

This is a “shortcut” for a full carrier stem,  providing Case information only.  It is used when the identity/nature of the foreign word(s) or proper name following the adjunct is already known to the addressee.   

 

CP

VC

Examples:  hla,  hlei,  hloa, hle’e, hla’u, hli’a   


hl

Same as Formative Slot IX

 

 

8.4.2   QUO  Quotative Adjunct

 

This adjunct combines the Carrier Adjunct with the discursive Register Adjunct to allow direct quotes to be placed within a case-frame, useful for translating imbedded quotes within sentences such as He told me “get out of the house!” 

 

CP

VC

Examples:  hma,  hmei,  hmoa, hme’e, hma’u, hmi’a   


hm

Same as Formative Slot IX

 

 

8.4.3   NAM   Naming Adjunct

 

This adjunct indicates that the following word is a name being referred to as such, rather than referring to the entity that bears the name, i.e., it would be used before the name Emily in the sentence ‘He said “Emily”’ as opposed to the sentence ‘He said “tell Emily” which would use the Quotative adjunct, or ‘He said to tell Emily’ which would use the Carrier adjunct. 

 

CP

VC

Examples:  hna,  hmei,  hnoa, hne’e, hna’u, hni’a   


hn

Same as Formative Slot IX

 

 

8.4.4   PHR   Phrasal Adjunct

 

This adjunct is essentially a specialized form of the carrier adjunct above to apply meta-level grammatical information to an entire subsequent phrase as a whole.  This is similar to a case-frame, except that where case-frames function solely as an equivalent to subordinate clauses in Western languages, this adjunct causes the subsequent phrase to become a conventionalized, (quasi-)lexicalized gestalt.  It thus serves as an equivalent to English phrasal gestalts (often hyphenated), as in the following examples:

 

Hey, shit-for-brains!  Stop your stumbling-around-in-the-dark behavior and watch how the know-how-to-get-things-done guy gets it done!

“Let the kid try, he’s from the neighborhood.” “O-oh!  ‘He’s from the neighborhood!’ [said sarcastically with a “big deal/so what?” tone of voice]

Is that the actor who starred in that aliens-invade-but-die-after-discovering-chocolate movie?

 

CP

VC

Examples:  hňa,  hňei,  hňo, hňe’e, hňa’u, hňi’a   

Same as Formative Slot IX

 

 

 

8.5   Bias Adjuncts

 

Bias adjuncts operate much like English “supra-segmental” interjections such as  ‘Phew!’, ‘Damn!’, ‘tsk-tsk’, ‘Pssshhh’, ‘huh?’, ‘meh’, ‘hmmm’, etc. to establish a subjective “tone” or attitude toward a sentence as a whole.  Unlike other adjuncts which function as substitutions for the morphological Slots within formatives, Bias adjuncts function independently from formatives and have semantic scope over the entire sentence (again, much like Interjections in natural languages).

 

Another unique quality of Bias adjuncts is that they violate the standard phonotactic rules of the language (again like the supera-segmental interjections of natural languages) by being purely consonantal in their phonetic make-up.  They should be pronounced with a preceding and following pause.  Each Bias adjunct has the same consonant-form as an associated lexico-semantic root phonologically structured to contain continuant and sonorant consonants so that when used as autonomous adjuncts, they may be pronounced in an exaggerated, prolonged fashion.  Additionally, those ending in a voiceless stop or voiceless affricate may aspirate or even ejectivize the consonant.  The Bias Adjuncts are listed below along with their meanings.

 

 

ACC

ACCIDENTAL

lf

‘As luck would have it...’  ‘Fate has decided that...’  ‘What luck!’

ACH

ARCHETYPAL

mçt

what (a) ...!; how . . .! ; Boy! Did (does) X ever …

ADS

ADMISSIVE 

‘Mm-hm’ ‘Uh-huh’ (said as mere acknowledgement of a statement without any implied agreement with or assent to the statement)

ANN

ANNUNCIATIVE

drr

‘Guess what!’ or ‘Wait till you hear this!

ANP

ANTICIPATIVE

lst

‘I’m looking foward to this!’

APB

APPROBATIVE

řs

‘(That’s) OK’  ‘(That’s) alright’  ‘(That’s) good’  ‘(That’s) fine’  ‘Very well’  ‘Sure’

APH

APPREHENSIVE

vvz

‘I’m worried...’ ‘I’ve got a bad feeling about this...’

ARB

ARBITRARY

xtļ

‘..Yeah, whatever...’, ‘...Ah, what the hell, I’m going ahead and....’

ATE

ATTENTIVE

ňj

‘Well, whaddya know...’  ‘Well, will you look at that...!’  ‘Well, go figure...’  ‘Who would’ve thought...?’  ‘Well I’ll be!’

CMD

COMEDIC

pļļ

‘Funny!’  ‘LOL’

CNV

 CONTENSIVE

rrj

‘I’m telling you...’, ‘I told you so!’, ‘You see?!’

COI

COINCIDENTAL

ššč

‘What a coincidence!’

CRP

CORRUPTIVE

gžž

‘How corrupt!’ ‘What corruption!’

CRR

CORRECTIVE

ňţ

‘that is to say…,’ ‘What I mean(t) to say is…’ ‘I mean….’

CTP

CONTEMPTIVE

kšš

‘What nonsense!’ or ‘What bullshit!’

CTV

CONTEMPLATIVE

gvv

‘I wonder how…,’ ‘that’s odd…,’ ‘I don’t get it…,’ or a quizzical ‘hmmmm.’

DCC

DISCONCERTIVE

gzj

‘I’m not sure about this.’  ‘I don’t feel comfortable about this.’  ‘I’m feeling out of my element here.’

DEJ

DEJECTIVE

žžg

‘(sigh)’ [of dejection/disillusionment]

DES

DESPERATIVE

mřř

‘I don’t know how to say this, but…’ ‘I’m afraid that….’ ‘I’m sorry to have to tell you, but...’

DFD

DIFFIDENT

‘sorry, but…’ ‘It’s nothing. It’s just…’

DIS

DISMISSIVE

kff

‘Is that it?’ ‘Big deal!’ ‘So what!?’

DLC

DELECTATIVE

ẓmm

‘Whee!’

DOL

DOLOROUS

řřx

‘Ow!’  ‘Ouch!’

DPB

DISAPPROBATIVE

ffx

‘I don’t like the fact that…’ ‘It bothers me that….’  ‘Unacceptable!’ ‘I hate it!’

DRS

DERISIVE

pfc

‘How foolish!’  ‘How silly!’  ‘Look at how foolish/silly/ridiculous this is!’

DUB

DUBITATIVE

mmf

‘Hmm, not likely.’  ‘I doubt it.’  ‘Sounds fishy to me’  ‘I don’t trust this/it/him/her/them...’

EUH

EUPHORIC

gzz

‘(Sigh) What bliss!’

EUP

EUPHEMISTIC

vvt

‘Let’s just say that….’ or ‘Well, let me put it this way….’

EXA

EXASPERATIVE

kçç

‘Dammit!’  ‘Look, don’t you get it?…’ ‘Look, I’m trying to tell you….’

EXG

EXIGENT

rrs

‘It’s now or never!’

FOR

FORTUITOUS

lzp

‘It’s just as well that...’ or ‘All’s well that ends well...’          

FSC

FASCINATIVE 

žžj

‘Cool!’  ‘Wow!’  ‘Awesome!’

GRT

GRATIFICATIVE 

mmh

‘Ah!  What bliss...!’ ‘Oh, there’s nothing like….’ [physical pleasure only]

IDG

INDIGNATIVE

pšš

‘The nerve!’ or ‘How dare…!?”

IFT

INFATUATIVE 

vvr

‘Praise be to...!’  ‘Oh, thank God for...!’  ‘There’s nothing more sacred/holy/important than...!’

IPL

IMPLICATIVE

vll

‘of course,’ ‘after all,’ ‘needless to say.’

IPT

IMPATIENT

žžv

‘C’mon!,’ ‘What’re you waiting for?’ ‘so…already!’ as in the sentence ‘So dance already!’

IRO

IRONIC

mmž

‘Oh, nice!’  ‘Just great!’  ‘Well, now, isn’t this lovely!’

ISP

INSIPID 

lçp

 ‘Meh... (said due to lack of interest)’  ‘How boring/tedious/dull!’

IVD

INVIDIOUS

řřn

‘Why does he/she/they get to... and I don’t?!’  ‘How unfair (that I don’t get to...)!’

MAN

MANDATORY 

msk

‘take it or leave it,’ ‘this is your last chance,’

MNF

MANIFESTIVE

pss

‘Ah!’, ‘Well, now!’ ‘So!’  [Italian ‘Allora!’ ]

OPT

OPTIMAL

ççk

prolonged ‘so’ or ‘totally’ as in ‘I so don’t care!’ or ‘That is totally not what I meant.’ 

PES

PESSIMISTIC

ksp

‘Yeah, like it really matters that...’  ‘Pfft!  What’s it to me?’

PPT

PROPITIOUS

mll

‘it’s a wonder that’ as in It’s a wonder he didn’t break a bone in that fall.

PPX

PERPLEXIVE

llh

‘Huh? What do you mean…?  What the hell? ‘WTF!?’ ‘You gotta be kidding me!’

PPV

PROPOSITIVE

sl

‘what if…’ ‘It could be that….’ ‘Consider this: …’ ‘Posit the following: …’ ‘Assume for the sake of argument that….’

PSC

PROSAIC 

žžt

‘Meh... (said in disappointment)’  ‘How ordinary!’

PSM

PRESUMPTIVE

nnţ

‘It can only mean one thing…,’ ‘and that’s that!’ ‘and that’s all there is to it!’ or ‘There’s no two ways about it,….’

RAC

REACTIVE

kll

‘My goodness! ‘Wow!’ ‘Amazing!’

RFL

REFLECTIVE

llm

‘Look at it this way…’ ‘As I see it,…’ ‘In my opinion…’  ‘From my point of view…’

RSG

RESIGNATIVE

msf

‘So much for...!’  ‘There goes...!’

RPU

REPULSIVE

šštļ

‘Yuck!  Ew!  How gross!’

RVL

REVELATIVE

mmļ

‘No wonder…!’ or ‘So that’s why…!’ ‘A-ha!….’   ‘Well, well, well!….’

SAT

SATIATIVE

ļţ

‘How satisfying...!’ ‘At last, the pleasue of knowing/being/seeing/doing….’ [psychological/emotional pleasure/satiety only]

SGS

SUGGESTIVE

ltç

‘How about...’ ‘We could...’ ‘Might I suggest...’

SKP

SKEPTICAL

rnž

‘Yeah, right!’  ‘Oh, sure!  Like anyone’s supposed to believe that!’

SOL

SOLICITATIVE

ňňs

‘please’  

STU

STUPEFACTIVE 

ļļč

‘Woah!’  ‘Holy, bejeezus!’  ‘What the...!’ ‘Jeez, Louise...!’

TRP

TREPIDATIVE

llč

‘Oh, God…’ ‘Oh, no!….’ ‘Oh, dear!” [fear-based]

VEX

VEXATIVE

ksk

‘How annoying!’ ‘What a bother!’ ‘What a pain!’

 

 

8.6   PSG   The Parsing Adjunct

 

The parsing adjunct has already been explained in Sec. 2.7, Pragraph No. 5.

 

 

 

Introduction

4  Case Morphology

8  Adjuncts

12  The Writing System

1  Phonology

5  Verb Morphology

9  Referentials

13  Numbers

2  Morpho-Phonology

6  More Verb Morphology

10  Special Constructions

14  The Lexicon

3  Basic Morphology

7  Affixes

11  Syntax

Appendices