Ithkuil: A Philosophical Design for a Hypothetical Language

   

 

 

   
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Chapter 5: Verb Morphology

5.1 Function 5.5 Phase 5.9 Validation
5.2 Mood 5.6 Sanction 5.10 Aspect
5.3 Illocution 5.7 Valence 5.11 Bias
5.4 Case-Frames & Relation 5.8 Version  


The Ithkuil verbal formative (termed “verb” in this chapter for simplicity’s sake) is the workhorse of the language, inflecting for twenty-two different morphological categories. These include the seven categories shared by all formatives and already discussed in Chapter 3: Configuration, Affiliation, Perspective, Extension, Essence, Context, and Designation. Additionally the following fifteen categories apply solely to verbs: Function, Mood, Illocution, Case-Frame, Relation, Phase, Sanction, Valence, Version, Validation, Aspect, Format, Modality, Level, and Bias. Additionally, Ithkuil allows for stem incorporation, i.e., for one formative stem to be incorporated inside of another to expand the latter’s semantic range. The verb can also theoretically take any number of the approximately 1800 suffixes available to formatives. Such suffixes are analyzed in Chapter 7.

The full structure of a Ithkuil verbal formative is in two parts, i.e., having two distinct words, these being a valence/modality adjunct and the verb itself. In simple sentences, the valence/modality adjunct may be missing. The following extreme example of a fully inflected Ithkuil verb illustrates all 22 of the above-listed categories, as well as demonstrating an incorporated stem:

 

     hruštrul-lyö’ň  ˉhničhâçtàu’watkwöu​​​​​​              

hr.u.štr.u.l-ly.ö.’ň

Valence: DEMONSTRATIVE
Level: SURPASSIVE-RELATIVE
Phase: RECURRENT
Sanction: REFUTATIVE
Illocution: DIRECTIVE

Modality: DESIDERATIVE
Aspect 1: REGRESSIVE
Apect 2: IMMINENT
Bias: COINCIDENTAL

ˉ.hn.i.čh.â.çt.àu.’wa.tkw.öu

Validation: PRESUMPTIVE 2
Function: DYNAMIC
Pattern/Stem of Main Root:  Pattern 1, Stem 1
Incorporated Root: čh ‘make/construct’
Pattern/Stem of Inc. Root:  Pattern 1, Stem 1
Designation of Incorporated Root: FORMAL
Main Root: çt ‘chamber; spatial enclosure’
Case-Frame: CONCESSIVE
Mood: SUBJUNCTIVE
Essence: REPRESENTATIVE
Extension: PROXIMAL
Perspective: ABSTRACT
Configuration: COMPOSITE
Affiliation: COALESCENT
Context: AMALGAMATIVE
Format: SUBSEQUENT
Version: COMPLETIVE
Designation: FORMAL
Relation: FRAMED

A highly stilted but approximate English translation of the above, capturing as many of the nuances of the Ithkuil phrase as possible, would be: ‘…despite presumably being on the verge, contrary to the allegation, of just so happening to want to succeed in maybe ordering a periodic return to the honorable practice of superlative architecture for others to follow by example.

Of the 15 morphological categories particular to verbal formatives, we will examine in this chapter those eleven of them which usually constitute part of the verbal formative itself (Function, Mood, Illocution, Case-Frame, Relation, Phase, Sanction, Valence, Version, Validation and Aspect). The remaining categories specific to valence/modality adjuncts (Modality, Level, and Bias) will be described in Chapter 6. Additionally, the category of Format, while displayed within the formative, is closely tied to the phenomenon of stem incorporation, which is also discussed in Chapter 6. Therefore, Format will be discussed in that chapter.



5.1 FUNCTION

Function refers to the general relationship a verb has to its noun participants based on whether the verb represents an existential or psychological state, a dynamic action or event, a mere statement of X = Y identification, or a description. Without a standardized system for the lexico-semantic function of verbs, the meaning of such a form could only be learned from hearing others using it in context.

Note that, although Function is being described here in the chapter on Verbs, Ithkuil nouns, too, carry a Function, specifically the STATIVE function, in that they manifest an inherent, existential (i.e., non-dynamic) state of matter/energy. Because a formative’s Function changes only for verbs, not nouns, Function is being discussed in this chapter.

As previously described in Section 2.2.2, Function is shown by the Vr affix in Slot IV, which also conveys the main root’s Stem and Pattern.


I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
(((Cv)
VL)
Cg/Cs)
Vr
(Cx/Cv
Vp/VL)
Cr
Vc
Ci +Vi
Ca
VxC
(Vf
(’Cb))
[tone]
[stress]

Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)

Valence
Validation
OR
Aspect (+ Mood)
Pattern +
Stem +

Function
Incorp.Root
OR
Phase + Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
OR
Valence
Root
Case
Illocution +
Mood
Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Deriv.
Suffix
Context + Format
Bias
Version
Designa-
tion + Relation

 

The values of Vr- by Stem and Pattern and Function are shown in Table 8 below.


Table 8: Values of Vr by Stem, Pattern, and Function (see Section 2.2.2 for a discussion of Stem and Pattern)

 

Pattern 1

Pattern 2

Pattern 3

 

Stem 1

Stem 2

Stem 3

Stem 1

Stem 2

Stem 3

Stem 1

Stem 2

Stem 3

Function
                 

STATIVE

(a-)

e-

u-

o-

ö-

î- / û-

â-

ê-

ô-

DYNAMIC

i-

ai-

ei-

au-

eu-

iu-

ia- / ua-

ie- / ue-

io- / uo-

MANIFESTIVE

ui-

ü- / ou-

ëi-

ae-

ea-

oa-

üa- / aì-

iù- / uì-

iö- / uö-

DESCRIPTIVE

oi-

eo-

eö-

oe-

öe-

ëu-

üo- / oì-

üe- / eì-

üö- / aù-


The four Functions are the STATIVE, DYNAMIC, MANIFESTIVE, and DESCRIPTIVE. They are described in the following sections. Note that the previous version of Ithkuil, as well as Ilaksh, had additional functions (previously called Conflations) than the current four. Due to Ithkuil’s new stem-incorporation abilities (described in Section 6.4), those additional functions are no longer necessary.

 


5.1.1
STA
The Stative

The STATIVE function indicates a stative manifestation, i.e. to be in a non-causal, non-dynamic (temporary or permanent) state, including states of mind, non-dynamic or affictive physical states (e.g., something being warm, but not making something warm), as well as being the Function associated with all formatives acting as nouns. However, it does NOT mean “be” in the sense of X=Y copula identification as in “I am John.”

 

5.1.2
DYN
The Dynamic

DYNAMIC function indicates that the verb refers to a tangible or physical act or cause-and-effect event: to perform the action of X; to do what X does; to carry out X’s function. Note that the choice of whether a particular situation is to be considered STATIVE or DYNAMIC can be subjective. For example, if a person is chronically coughing due to an illness, one can describe the coughing using either the DYNAMIC (to focus for example on the paroxysmal movements and physical processes undergone by the person during each cough), or the STATIVE (to let the reader/listener know you consider the coughing to be merely a manifestation of an existential state, e.g., an illness, in which the physical motions and processes associated with each cough are not the relevant issue.

In the examples from Section 4.3.12 involving anger-inducing clowns and burning trees, we likewise saw the difference in meaning between using STATIVE versus DYNAMIC function for otherwise identical sentences.

 

5.1.3
MNF
The Manifestive

MANIFESTIVE function indicates that the verb represents a manifestion or naming of the identity of a specific entity; this is the nearest equivalent to the X=Y “be” copula of identification in Western languages, as in She is a manager, That man is secretly a clown, Dogs are mammals, Mrs. Beasly is a fat crone.

 

5.1.4
DSC
The Descriptive

DESCRIPTIVE function indicates descriptive manifestation, i.e., to appear or manifest in the manner of. This sense is the nearest Ithkuil equivalent to English adjectives.

 

5.1.5 Examples of Function

Here follow examples of the four functions applied to the same stem egrá- ‘prepare(d) food’:

STA STATIVE egrá-   ‘(to be in) a state of preparing food’
DYN DYNAMIC aigrá-   ‘prepare food’
MNF MANIFESTIVE ügrá-    ‘to be prepared food’
DSC DESCRIPTIVE eográ-   ‘to be like prepared food’


Additional examples of Function:


Iek’ás  to  phel.

DYN-‘burn’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-FML       1M-ERG       STA-‘tree’-ABS-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
I burn the tree.          LISTEN 

 


Êk’ás  phel.

STA-‘burn’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-FML          STA-‘tree’-ABS-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
The tree is burning / The tree is in flames.
         LISTEN 

 


Qa  uiphal  êk’àî’sa.

mi-OBL         MNF-‘tree’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL          FRAMED-FML-STA-‘burn’-COR-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI 
It is a burning tree / It is a tree in flames.
         LISTEN 

 


Qa    üek’ás.

mi-OBL         DSC-‘burn’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-FML 
It is flame-like / It reminds one of burning flames.
         LISTEN 

 


5.2 MOOD

Most languages have a morphological category for verbs known as “mood,” serving to indicate specific attitudes or perspectives on the act, condition, or event, or the degree of factuality involved. Example moods common to Western languages include the indicative (factual utterances), subjunctive (showing doubt or probability, expressed by ‘may/might’ in English), imperative (indicating commands, e.g., Go now!, Sing it for us! ), conditional (expressing hypotheticals, e.g., She would travel if she could), optative (indicating wishes, hopes, expectations, e.g., I wish he’d go, I expect him to be here), and hortative (indicating exhortations, e.g., May he live 100 years! Let them see for themselves!).

We will see later in Section 5.3 that in Ithkuil the functions of certain moods in Western languages correspond not to Mood, but to the grammatical category of Illocution, specifically where Western moods function to describe types of speech acts. In Ithkuil, moods simply convey a two-fold distinction as to whether the factuality of an utterance is certain or uncertain, combined with a four-way distinction as to whether the factuality of an explicit or implicit assumption underlying the utterance (i.e., a presupposition) is true, false, unknown, or a determinant of the factuality of the utterance. This twofold by fourfold matrix renders a total of eight moods in Ithkuil.

The eight moods are FACTUAL, SUBJUNCTIVE, ASSUMPTIVE, SPECULATIVE, COUNTERFACTIVE, HYPOTHETICAL, IMPLICATIVE, and ASCRIPTIVE. They are shown in conjunction with the morphological category of Illocution (see Section 5.3) by the Ci+Vi infix placed in Slot IX. The Ci+Vi infix is of the form consonant Ci followed by a vowel Vi.

(NOTE: Under certain circumstances, as an alternate to the Ci+Vi infix in Slot IX, Mood can be shown via the Cs prefix in Slot III usually used to show the category of Aspect. These circumstances are described later in Section 5.10 on Aspect.)

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
(((Cv)
VL)
Cg/Cs)
Vr
(Cx/Cv
Vp/VL)
Cr
Vc
Ci +Vi
Ca
VxC
(Vf
(’Cb))
[tone]
[stress]

Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)

Valence
Validation
OR
Aspect (+ Mood)
Pattern +
Stem +
Function
Incorp.Root
OR
Phase + Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
OR
Valence
Root
Case
Illocution +
Mood
Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Deriv.
Suffix
Context + Format
Bias
Version
Designa-
tion + Relation


The consonant half of the infix, Ci, has three different forms: -w-, -y-, and -h-.

NOTE: If the formative’s Vc case affix is a diphthong ending in -u (i.e., au, eu, iu, ou, öu, ëu), the -w- value of Ci changes to -hw- and the final -u of the Vc diphthong is deleted. Thus, adding the Ci+Vi infix -wa- to the formative daus results in dahwas, not dauwas.

Also, if the formative’s Vc case affix is a diphthong ending in -i (i.e., ai, ei, oi, ui, öi, ëi), the -y-value of Ci changes from to -hw- (while the Vc diphthong is left intact). Thus, adding the Ci+Vi infix -ya- to the formative dais results in daihwas, not daiyas.

Table 9 below shows the values of the Ci+Vi infix by Illocution and Mood.


Table 9: Ci + Vi infix values indicating 6 Illocutions x 8 Moods

 
MOOD
ILLOCUTION (see Sec. 5.3)
FAC
SUB
ASM
SPC
COU
HYP
IPL
ASC
1 ASSERTIVE
(-wë)*
-wa
-yë
-ya
-yû
-hë
-ha
-hû / -hî
2 DIRECTIVE
-we
-wö
-ye
-yö
-yeu / -wei
-he
-hö
-hei
3 INTERROGATIVE
-wu
-wâ
-yu
-yâ
-yau / -wai
-hu
-hâ
-hai
4 ADMONITIVE
-wo
-wê
-yo
-yê
-you / -woi
-ho
-hê
-hoi
5 HORTATIVE
-wi
-wô
-yi
-yô
-yiu / -wui
-hi
-hô
-hui
6 DECLARATIVE **
-wî
* The combination of FACTUAL Mood + ASSERTIVE Illocution is usually unmarked. It is marked by the infix -- only in certain cases where Slots V and VI are filled by the Cv and VL affixes (see note in Section 5.5 for details).
* * The DECLARATIVE Illocution can only be used in the FACTUAL mood.


NOTE: The category of Mood (along with the category of Aspect) can alternately be shown via the Cs affix in Slot III; this will be discussed in Section 5.10. Additionally the Cs Mood/Aspect affix can be placed into a verbal adjunct rather than being shown in the formative; this will be discussed in Section 6.3.1.

The function of the eight moods is described in the sections immediately below.


5.2.1
FAC
The Factual

The FACTUAL mood signifies that the factuality of the speaker’s statement is certain and that there either is no underlying presupposition to the statement, or if there is, its factuality is also certain or has no bearing on the factuality of the statement. Examples:



Eglas  âmmiļ  qê.
STA-‘illness’-[FAC]-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL   STA-‘child.offspring’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/AGG-IFL   ma-GEN
His kids are ill. [i.e., it is known he has kids and it is known they are ill]          LISTEN 

 


Hëtiun-n  ivogwařļokkai  ţei.

PRL-ITV-FAC    DYN-[inc.stem: ‘recreation.leisure’]-‘ambulate’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/CPN-TPP1/7-IFL-ISR   1+ma-ACT
She and I are taking a walk later on. [i.e., it is our intention and we have the opportunity to do so]          LISTEN 

 


Uzlas  gvarl  âpcââl.
STA-‘inside-out’-[FAC]-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘article.of.clothing’-OBL-NRM/DEL/M/ASO/AGG-IFL    STA-‘wife’-POS-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-FML
His wife’s clothes are inside-out.          LISTEN 



5.2.2
SUB
The Subjunctive

The SUBJUNCTIVE mood indicates that the factuality of an explicit or implicit presupposition underlying the statement is certain, but the factuality of the speaker’s statement itself is questionable or uncertain, the specific nuance of factuality intended being subject to the particular Bias and Validation associated with the verb. Corresponds roughly with English ‘may,’ ‘maybe’ or ‘might,’ with the added distinction that an explicit or implicit (i.e., underlying) presupposition is true. Examples:



Eglawas  âmmiļ  qê.
STA-‘illness’-SUB-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL   STA-‘child.offspring’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/AGG-IFL   ma-GEN
Maybe his kids are ill. [i.e., it is known that he has kids but it is not known whether they are ill]

 


Hëtium-m  ivogwařļokkai  ţei.

PRL-ITV-SUB    DYN-[inc.stem: ‘recreation.leisure’]-‘ambulate’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/CPN-TPP1/7-IFL-ISR  1+ma-ACT
She and I may take a walk later on. [i.e., it is known that the opportunity to do so will arise, but it is uncertain whether we will choose to]

 


Uzlawas  gvarl  âpcââl.
STA-‘inside-out’-SUB-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL   STA-‘article.of.clothing’-OBL-DEL/M/ASO/AGG-IFL    STA-‘wife’-POS-DEL/M/CSL/UNI-FML
His wife’s clothes may be inside-out.




5.2.3
ASM
The Assumptive

The ASSUMPTIVE mood functions identically to the FACTUAL except that the factuality of an underlying presupposition is unknown. It therefore conveys an act, state, or event whose factuality is dependent on whether something else is factual, thus corresponding to certain usages of English ‘maybe’ and ‘will’ (where ‘will’ primarily conveys possibility, not future tense). As with all moods, the specific translation is subject to the particular Bias and Validation associated with the verb. Examples:



Eglayës  âmmiļ  qê.
STA-‘illness’-ASM-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL   STA-‘child.offspring’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/AGG-IFL   ma-GEN
His kids’ll be ill OR If he has kids, they are ill. [i.e., it is unknown whether he has kids, but if he does, they are certainly ill.]

 


Hëtiul-l  ivogwařļokkai  ţei.
PRL-ITV-ASM    DYN-[inc.stem: ‘recreation.leisure’]-‘ambulate’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/CPN-TPP1/7-IFL-ISR  1+ma-ACT
She and I will take a walk later on [i.e., if we can] OR We intend to take a walk. [i.e., but we don’t know if we’ll be able to]

 


Uzlayës  gvarl  âpcââl.
STA-‘inside-out’-ASM-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘article.of.clothing’-OBL-DEL/M/ASO/AGG-IFL    STA-‘wife’-POS-DEL/M/CSL/UNI-FML
If he has a wife her clothes are inside-out.



5.2.4
SPC
The Speculative

The SPECULATIVE mood indicates that the factuality of both the presupposition and the statement itself are unknown. Its translation into English is dependent on the specific context, sometimes corresponding to ‘may,’ ‘maybe’ or ‘might,’ and at other times corresponding to the auxiliary ‘would.’ Compare the examples below to those above:



Eglayas  âmmiļ  qê.
STA-‘illness’-SPC-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL   STA-‘child.offspring’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/AGG-IFL   ma-GEN
Maybe his kids are ill [i.e., it is unknown if he has kids but if he does, they may be ill].

 


Hëtiur-r  ivogwařļokkai  ţei.

PRL-ITV-SPC    DYN-[inc.stem: ‘recreation.leisure’]-‘ambulate’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/CPN-TPP1/7-IFL-ISR  1+ma-ACT
She and I may take a walk later on [i.e., it is unknown whether we will have the opportunity to do so, and even if we do, it is uncertain whether we will choose to].

 


Uzlayas  gvarl  âpcââl.
STA-‘inside-out’-SPC-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA- ‘article.of.clothing’-OBL-DEL/M/ASO/AGG-IFL    STA-‘wife’-POS-DEL/M/CSL/UNI-FML
If he has a wife her clothes may be inside-out.




5.2.5
COU
The Counterfactive

The COUNTERFACTIVE mood indicates that the factuality of the underlying presupposition is false or unreal but that the factuality of the statement would otherwise be true. It thus corresponds to the English construction of auxiliary ‘would’ or ‘would have’ in its use to show counterfactuality (i.e., what would have been if a false presupposition had been true). Again, the specific translation is subject to the particular Bias and Validation associated with the verb. Compare the examples below to those above.



Eglayûs  âmmiļ  qê.
STA-‘illness’-COU-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL   STA-‘child.offspring’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/AGG-IFL   ma-GEN
His kids would be (would have been) ill [i.e., if he had kids they would be ill, but he doesn’t].


Hëtiuň-ň  ivogwařļokkai  ţei.

PRL-ITV-COU    DYN-[inc.stem: ‘recreation.leisure’]-‘ambulate’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/CPN-TPP1/7-IFL-ISR  1+ma-ACT
She and I would take (would have taken) a walk later on [i.e., it is our intention but we won’t have the opportunity].



Uzlayûs  gvarl  âpcââl.
STA-‘inside-out’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-COU-IFL    STA-‘article.of.clothing’-OBL-DEL/M/ASO/AGG-IFL    STA-‘wife’-POS-DEL/M/CSL/UNI-FML
If he were to have a wife her clothes would be inside-out.

 


Them-mphâmnas  osmuil.

ASR/CTX/ALG-PRL-PRS/COU-STA-‘awe’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘valley’-DER-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
The valley would've been awe-inspiring to you, too [i.e., if you had seen/visited/been to it].          LISTEN 


5.2.6
HYP
The Hypothetical

The HYPOTHETICAL mood indicates that the factuality of the underlying presupposition is false or unreal and that the factuality of the statement itself is uncertain. It thus corresponds to the English construction of auxiliary ‘might have’ in its use to show possible counterfactuality (i.e., what might have been if a false presupposition had been true). Again, the specific translation is subject to the particular Bias and Validation associated with the verb. Compare the examples below to those above.



Eglahës  âmmiļ  qê.
STA-‘illness’-HYP-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL   STA-‘child.offspring’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/AGG-IFL   ma-GEN
His kids might’ve been ill [if he had kids, but he doesn’t, so we’ll never know].

 


Hëtiur-n  ivogwařļokkai  ţei.

PRL-ITV-HYP    DYN-[inc.stem: ‘recreation.leisure’]-‘ambulate’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/CPN-TPP1/7-IFL-ISR  1+ma-ACT
She and I might’ve taken a walk later on [i.e., but we won’t have the opportunity, so the decision whether to do so is moot].

 


Uzlahës  gvarl  âpcââl.
STA-‘inside-out’-HYP-PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘article.of.clothing’-OBL-DEL/M/ASO/AGG-IFL    STA-‘wife’-POS-DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
If he were to have a wife her clothes might be inside-out.




5.2.7
IPL
The Implicative

The IMPLICATIVE mood indicates that the factuality of the underlying presupposition determines the factuality of the statement and that the relationship between the two need not necessarily be a direct cause-and-effect, but merely an indirect chain of events from which the speaker infers the statement from the underlying presupposition. In grammatical analysis, this is referred to as an “epistemic conditional.” Examples are shown below.



Eglahas  âmmiļ  qê.
STA-‘illness’-IPL-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL   STA-‘child.offspring’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/AGG-IFL   ma-GEN
His kids are (must be) ill [i.e., as implied by some other fact such as his staying home from work].

 


Iul-n  ivogwařļokkai  ţei.

PRL-ITV-IPL    DYN-[inc.stem: ‘recreation.leisure’]-‘ambulate’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/CPN-TPP1/7-IFL-ISR  1+ma-ACT
[If she wears a blue dress,] we’ll be taking a walk later on.  [the dress implies something has happened that will make the walk a certainty]

 


Uzlahas  gvarl  âpcââl.
STA-‘inside-out’-IPL-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA- ‘article.of.clothing’-OBL-DEL/M/ASO/AGG-IFL    STA-‘wife’-POS-DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
His wife’s clothes must be inside-out.




5.2.8
ASC
The Ascriptive

The ASCRIPTIVE mood functions identically to the IMPLICATIVE immediately above, except that the factuality of the inference derived from the underlying presupposition is uncertain. Examples:



Eglahîs  âmmiļ  qê.
STA-‘illness’-ASC-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL   STA-‘child.offspring’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/AGG-IFL   ma-GEN
His kids may be ill [i.e., as implied by some other fact such as his staying home from work].

 


Iur-ň  ivogwařļokkai  ţei.

PRL-ITV-ASC    DYN-[inc.stem: ‘recreation.leisure’]-‘ambulate’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/CPN-TPP1/7-IFL-ISR  1+ma-ACT
[If she wears a blue dress,] we might be taking a walk later on.  [the dress implies something has happened that we’ll make the walk a possibility]

 


Uzlahîs  gvarl  âpcââl.
STA-‘inside-out’-ASC-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL     STA-‘article.of.clothing’-OBL-DEL/M/ASO/AGG-IFL    STA-‘wife’-POS-DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
That means his wife’s clothes are inside-out.



5.3 ILLOCUTION

Illocution refers to what in linguistics is usually termed types of speech acts, i.e., the general purpose of a statement such as whether it is an assertion, a command, a declaratory pronouncement, a question, a warning, etc. This is a category which is not generally marked within Western languages in any consistent grammatical sense, the nearest equivalent grammatical category usually being Mood. As was seen above in Section 5.1, Mood functions in a much narrower grammatical range than in Western languages. When the moods of Western language actually relate to types of speech acts, the equivalent function in Ithkuil is shown by the category of Illocution.

There are six illocutions in Ithkuil: ASSERTIVE, INTERROGATIVE, DIRECTIVE, ADMONITIVE, HORTATIVE and DECLARATIVE. They distinguish the type of speech act being performed by the speaker, with a specific focus on the type of commitment being made on the part of either the speaker or the hearer to the truth or purpose of the utterance. Illocution is marked along with the category of Mood (see Section 5.2) by a consonant+vowel Ci+Vi infix to the formative, as previously shown in Table 9 above.

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
(((Cv)
VL)
Cg/Cs)
Vr
(Cx/Cv
Vp/VL)
Cr
Vc
Ci +Vi
Ca
VxC
(Vf
(’Cb))
[tone]
[stress]

Phase +
Sanction
(+Illocution)

Valence
Validation
OR
Aspect (+ Mood)
Pattern +
Stem +
Function
Incorp.Root
OR
Phase + Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
OR
Valence
Root
Case
Illocution +
Mood
Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Deriv.
Suffix
Context + Format
Bias
Version
Designa-
tion + Relation


Illocution can alternately be shown via the Cv affix (Slots I or V) as discussed in Section 5.5 below on Phase. Additionally, in Section 6.3.3 we will see that Illocution can be shown by an affix within a verbal adjunct.

The six illocutions are described below.


5.3.1
ASR
The Assertive

The ASSERTIVE is used to express propositions which purport to describe or name some act, event, or state in the real world, with the purpose of committing the hearer to the truth of the proposition. Thus, an utterance in the ASSERTIVE illocution is one that can be believed or disbelieved, and is either true or false. Such utterances would include general statements, descriptions, and explanations.

 

5.3.2
DIR
The Directive

The DIRECTIVE illocution is for the purpose of committing the hearer to undertake a course of action represented by the proposition, where the proposition describes a mental wish, desire, or intention on the part of the speaker. Thus, an utterance in the DIRECTIVE is one that is neither true nor false because it is not describing something that purports to exist in the real world; rather, it describes an act or situation which can potentially be made real, i.e., that can be fulfilled or carried out. Such utterances include commands, orders, and requests and would generally be marked in Western languages by either the imperative, optative, or subjunctive moods. The commitment on the part of the hearer is not belief or disbelief, but rather whether to obey, comply with, or grant. The DIRECTIVE is also used for “commissive” types of statements such as promises, vows, pledges, oaths, contracts, or guarantees, where the statement is a wish or command directed at oneself.



5.3.3
IRG
The Interrogative

The INTERROGATIVE is used for utterances corresponding to questions in other languages. The commitment on the part of the listener in regard to the INTERROGATIVE is one of compliance or non-compliance in divulging the information sought, and the truth value of the utterance is neutral pending the reply.


5.3.4
ADM
The Admonitive

The ADMONITIVE is used for admonitions and warnings, corresponding to English phrases such as ‘(I) caution you lest…,’ ‘(I) warn you against…,’ or ‘Be careful not to….’ The utterance is neither true nor false because it describes only a potential act or situation which may occur unless avoided. The commitment on the part of the hearer is to assess the degree of likelihood of the potentiality, followed by a choice whether to heed or ignore/defy the utterance.

 

5.3.5
HOR
The Hortative

The HORTATIVE is used for statements that are untrue or unreal, but wished to be true or real, corresponding to English phrases such as ‘if only…’, or ‘were it that….’

 

5.3.6
DEC
The Declarative

The DECLARATIVE is used for utterances whose purpose is to themselves effect a change upon the real world, based upon convention, cultural rules, law, subjective authority, or personal authority or control of a situation. The commitment imposed upon the hearer is one of recognition or non-recognition. Such utterances include declarations, announcements, proclamations, and various “performative” expressions. Certain languages mark this function of a verb using a mood known as hortative. Examples would be: I dub thee “Clown Master”!, The king will hear all grievances at noon each day, This court is now in session, We hereby declare this treaty null and void!

 


5.3.7 Examples of Illocution in Use


Aidhawél.

DYN-‘water.as.nourishment’-DIR-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-FML
Drink some water!          LISTEN 

 


Ükšoàwîl  âmmell.

MNF-‘clown’-TFM-DEC-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-FML     STA-‘child’-ABS-DEL/M/CSL/DPX-IFL
The pair of children are hereby turned into clowns!          LISTEN 


Iolmawóţ  êļneilüükt.

DYN-‘sing.a.song’- ADM-NRM/DEL/N/CSL/UNI-FML   STA-‘bird’-ACT-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-DEF1/8-FML
Be aware that this pet bird sings.         LISTEN 

 


Aigrawutļáun?

DYN-‘prepared.food’-IRG-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/DCT-AGC2/2-FML
Will the cook prepare some meals?          LISTEN 

 


Igrawileiţrar  oi  eglulôn.

DYN-‘eat food’-FAC-HOR-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-EXT2/6-NA11/5-IFL    PCL     STA-‘illness’-IND-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-AGC2/7-IFL
If only the physician wouldn’t eat his food in one gulp like that.          LISTEN 

 

5.4 CASE-FRAMES AND RELATION

Virtually all languages allow for sentences to be hierarchically embedded within other sentences, a process termed subordination. In Western languages, the embedded sentence becomes either a subordinate clause or a relative clause, explicitly introduced by a conjunctions such as ‘that,’ ‘which,’ ‘who,’ ‘where,’‘although,’‘if,’‘while,’‘whereas,’ or a preposition followed by a conjunction, such as ‘through which,’‘by whom,’etc. In English, such clauses can also occur as an infinitive or gerundial verb construction. Both relative and subordinate clauses are illustrated in the following sentences:

The dog that ate my hat belongs to them.
I want him to stop shouting.
The committee voted to fire the superintendant.
We demand (that) you give us equal pay.
Although he’s a college graduate, he acts like a child.
This is the slot through which the letter is passed.
In case you’re unaware, I’ll be leaving next month.
The boy walking toward us is my nephew.

The Ithkuil equivalent to relative or subordinate clauses is known as a case-frame, or simply, frame. Conceptually, the sentence to be embedded is simply treated as a noun participant to the main verb of a sentence and is therefore marked for case like any other noun. For example, take the following two sentences:

She and I were working together.
The two nations were at war.

Suppose we want to use the second sentence to provide a temporal context for the first sentence. In English we could do this by subordinating the second sentence to the first using the conjunction ‘while,’ as in She and I were working together while the two nations were at war. Alternately, we could create a relative clause by inserting a connecting prepositional phrase, as in She and I were working together during the time (that) the two nations were at war.

In Ithkuil, temporal context for a sentence may be provided by a noun in any of the temporal cases such as the CONCURSIVE (see Sec. 4.6.3). A word such as ‘summer’ or ‘famine’ would be placed in the CONCURSIVE case to create a sentence corresponding to:

She and I were working together during the summer.
She and I were working together at the time of the famine.

Just as the single words ‘summer’ and ‘famine’ are placed in the CONCURSIVE case, so an entire sentence such as The two nations were at war can be placed in the CONCURSIVE case to provide the temporal context for the main sentence. In other words, Ithkuil treats the entire subordinate sentence as a noun phrase to be declined into any required case. That is the purpose of a frame, to place sentences into noun cases. By doing so, Ithkuil accomplishes the same task for which Western languages use relative and subordinate conjunctions. In theory, any sentence can be placed into any of the 96 cases and inserted into another sentence wherever a simple noun might be placed in the sentence using that same case.

 

5.4.1 Relation and the Placement of Frames

To construct a case-frame, the second-order sentence (i.e., the sentence to be subordinated) is placed in the main sentence at the point where a noun declined for the required case would appear. The actual case of the second-order sentence is indicated in the verbal formative the same way as for nominal formatives, i.e., via the Vc affix in Slot VII. Additionally, the syllabic stress of the formative will change to show FRAMED Relation, explained in the next paragraph.

Relation is a binary category in Ithkuil, having two values. The main verbal formative of an Ithkuil sentence is in UNFRAMED Relation, marked by penultimate (second-to-last) syllabic stress or by ultimate (final) stress if the formative has FORMAL Designation (see Section 3.7). Once a verbal formative is subordinated within a case-frame, it takes FRAMED relation, shown by antepenultimate (third-from-last) syllabic stress or by preantepenultimate (fourth-from-last) syllabic stress if the formative has FORMAL Designation.


Table 10: Relation x Designation

STRESS =
2 relations x
2 designations

UNFRAMED Relation

FRAMED Relation

IFL Designation

FML Designation

IFL Designation

FML Designation

penultimate stress

ultimate stress

antepenultimate stress

pre-antepenultimate stress


If the formative does not have enough syllables to allow for penultimate or pre-antepenultimate stress, any morphophonological Slot (see Section 2.1.1) which is unfilled due to having its unmarked default value, can instead be marked by its alternate default value, e.g., the affix -a- in Slot IV (see Section 2.2.2), and/or the infix -- in Slot IX (see Section 5.5), and/or the affix -a- in Slot XII (see Section 3.6), in order to create a sufficient number of syllables.

If the case-frame is inserted at the beginning or into the middle of the main sentence, the final word of the case-frame will usually carry a special suffix, -t’ (see details in Section 7.4.13), which signifies the end of the frame if this will help to avoid confusion as to which words in the sentence belong inside the frame (i.e., with the secondary sentence), and which belong to the main sentence. A case-frame usually has its verb appear as the first element of the case frame.

In general, the perspective of the verb in the secondary sentence operates independently from that of the main verb, however, it is also common for the perspective of the verb in the secondary sentence to be placed in the ABSTRACT, which has the effect of deferring all Perspective information about the verb to the main verb, similarly to the way English subordinate clauses using gerunds and infinitives defer all tense information to the main verb of the sentence.


5.4.2 Reinterpreting the Notion of a Relative Clause

There is no direct equivalent in Ithkuil to the relative clauses of Western languages. Ithkuil treats such clauses the same as subordinate clauses using case-frames as described above. However, the manner in which this is done, while ultimately logical, is somewhat complex and confusing from a Western perspective. Therefore, to analyze how Ithkuil reinterprets Western relative clauses into subordinate case-frames will first require us to review the nature of relative clauses in Western languages such as English.

A relative clause refers to an imbedded sentence which modifies or describes a “head” noun in the main clause. There are two types of relative clauses, restricted (or dependent) and unrestricted (or independent). The two types are illustrated in the following English sentences.

RESTRICTED CLAUSE
(1) Lions that like chasing their tails can be seen at any circus.
(2) That book (that) I just finished reading was written by a priest.

UNRESTRICTED CLAUSE
(3) Lions, which like chasing their tails, can be seen at any circus.
(4) That book, which I just finished reading, was written by a priest.

In the first sentence, the clause ‘that like chasing their tails’ refers to a specific type of lion found at a circus (i.e, not all lions chase their tails). Similarly, the clause ‘(that) I just finished reading’ in the second sentence is restricted in that it is considered by the speaker as being necessary in order to identify which book is being talked about, i.e., without the clause, the listener would not know which book the speaker was referring to.

Note the difference in meaning, however, when comparing the first two sentences to the third and fourth sentences. In the third sentence, the speaker implies that all lions chase their tails regardless of whether they are in the circus. In the fourth sentence, the identity of the book is already known to the listener, and the speaker is merely providing two additional facts about it: the fact that he just finished reading it and the fact about its author. Notice that in English, an unrestricted relative clause is set off in writing by commas and cannot begin with ‘that’ (rather ‘which’ or ‘who’ must be used); also, such clauses are normally spoken in a lowered intonation with juncture (i.e., brief pauses) immediately before and after the clause.


5.4.2.1 Restricted Clauses. Ithkuil treats the above notions about relative clauses in a different way. We will first analyze how Ithkuil creates equivalents to restricted relative clauses. This can best be approached by analyzing the underlying sentences which give rise to the main and relative clauses. Analyzing Sentence No. 2 above, it can be broken up into two discrete sentences:

That book was written by a priest. (= A priest wrote that book.)
I just finished reading that book.

In Ithkuil, the sentence which will be functioning as the main sentence acts as a “template” in which the secondary sentence is placed. The particular place in the template to be filled is dependent on what semantic role, i.e., case (see Chapter 4) the secondary sentence is to fill. Note that the common point of reference of the two sentences is ‘that book.’ In the main sentence, ‘that book’ functions in the semantic role of CONTENT (See Sec. 4.1.2), superficially equivalent to the direct object of the ABSOLUTIVE subject ‘priest’, therefore, the main sentence becomes the template ‘A priest wrote X’ where X is in the OBLIQUE case (See Section 4.3.1). Meanwhile, in the secondary sentence, the noun which is the common point of reference (what in Western grammar would be called the “head” of the relative clause) is marked with an affix indicating such. So we now have the two sentences as:

A priest wrote [ ]. I just finish reading that book-H.

The ‘-H’ in the second sentence above is meant to represent an affix marking the “head” or common reference point between the two sentences. At this point, Ithkuil inserts the second sentence as a case-frame into the empty “slot” based on the semantic role it will be playing, in this instance the role of CONTENT marked by the OBLIQUE case (see Sec. 4.3.1).

A priest wrote [OBL]. I just finish reading that book-H.

As described in Sec. 5.4.1 above, the verb of the secondary sentence takes the relevant case marker (OBLIQUE).

A priest wrote I just finished reading-OBL that book-H.

Reverse translating this sentence back to English, the closest literal translation would be the rather awkward construction: A priest wrote what I just finished reading, that book. However, this is how Ithkuil translates the English sentence ‘A priest wrote that book that I just finished reading.’

Two observations can be noted from the Ithkuil sentence. First of all, unlike Western languages, the main clause contains no “head.” Instead, the “head” is marked from within the imbedded clause. Secondly, there is no difference between this process and the rendering of other types of subordinate clauses using case-frames, as the main sentence was rearranged (or reinterpreted) to provide a slot for the semantic role of the imbedded sentence, the exact same way that subordinate clauses are constructed in Ithkuil. Therefore, as was previously stated, Ithkuil makes no distinction between subordinate and relative clauses.

Similarly, the other example sentence from above, Lions that like chasing their tails can be seen at any circus would become in Ithkuil: At any circus one can see certain lions-H like to chase-OBL their tails. A literal translation into English would be: At any circus one can see (that) certain lions like chasing their tails.


5.4.2.2 Unrestricted Clauses. As for independent or unrestricted clauses, as shown in example sentences (3) and (4) earlier, Ithkuil treats these differently still. In Western languages, an unrestricted clause does not help to identify a noun or provide a context for it, but simply adds additional information about an already identified noun. Thus, unrestricted relative clauses serve a wholly different cognitive-semantic purpose than restricted clauses, a fact hidden by their nearly identical surface structures. Ithkuil acknowledges this profound difference at the overt sentence level by not subordinating any clause at all. Rather, the two sentences are given co-equal status as main clauses and simply joined by a coordinating affix. Thus sentences (3) and (4) from earlier become:

One can see lions at any circus and they like chasing their tails.
A priest wrote that book and I just finished reading it.


5.4.2.3 Use of the CORRELATIVE Case In Lieu of Simple Relative Clauses. The CORRELATIVE case (discussed in Section 4.5.25) is used to create case-frames which are semantically equivalent to the English phrase ‘that/which/who is/are…’ Such a case-frame would be used in conjunction with specific Functions (see Section 5.1) to convey whether the relationship of the relativized clause to the main clause is one of description, copula identification, etc.

 

5.4.3 Example of Case-Frames in Use



Âffapka  gvilevum  ‾xhéi’aica  ekšaéţ  odralekhá  gvoecuaţ.
        
STA-‘cry’-NRM/ICP/U/CSL/UNI-IFL     STA-‘article.of.clothing’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-CAP1/3-ROL1/9-IFL  
FRAMED/DYN-‘know’-PCR-NRM/DEL/A/CSL/UNI-CPT-IFL     STA-‘clown’-OGN-NRM/DEL/N/CSL/UNI-FML     STA-‘rule’-OBL-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-TPP1/3-FML     STA-‘article.of.clothing’-REF-NRM/DEL/A/CSL/UNI-DEV2/1-IFL

The incompetent tailor began to cry after finding out about the clowns’ new directive on nakedness.



N-nsaixtáš  qu  íkau’šurdûž.
            LISTEN 
CNT-DYN-‘job/employment’-NRM/PRX/M/ASO/UNI-FML     ma-IND     FRAMED-FML-DYN-‘travel’-CON-NRM/PRX/M/ASO/UNI-EXD1/9-CNS1/6
He keeps on working despite his reluctance to having to travel more and more.

 


5.5 PHASE

Phase refers to variances in the temporal pattern of how an act, condition or event occurs, e.g., in a momentary, lasting, or repetitive manner (or lack thereof). This is especially useful in describing phenomena that occur in sudden bursts of short duration, e.g., flashing, sputtering, blinking, alternating, etc. Phase functions closely with the morphological category of Extension, previously described in Sec. 3.4, to specify the durational nature, starting and ending, and operative pattern of a state, action or event.

The nine phases are the CONTEXTUAL, PUNCTUAL, ITERATIVE, REPETITIVE, INTERMITTENT, RECURRENT, FREQUENTATIVE, FRAGMENTATIVE, and FLUCTUATIVE. They are marked by the Cv affix to a formative, depending on the sanction (and potentially the illocution) of the verb (discussed in Sections 5.6 and 5.3 respectively). The Cv affix is normally placed in Slot V of the formative’s morphological structure, unless the formative contains an incorporated root (see Section 6.4), in which case Cv is placed in Slot I. (In Section 6.3.3 we will see that Cv can alternately be placed within a verbal adjunct.)

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
(((Cv)
VL)
Cg/Cs)
Vr
(Cx/Cv
Vp/VL)
Cr
Vc
Ci +Vi
Ca
VxC
(Vf
(’Cb))
[tone]
[stress]

Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)

Valence
Validation
OR
Aspect (+ Mood)
Pattern +
Stem +
Function
Incorp.Root
OR
Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
OR
Valence
Root
Case
Illocution +
Mood
Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Deriv.
Suffix
Context + Format
Bias
Version
Designa-
tion + Relation


The presence of a Cv infix in Slot V requires the presence of a VL affix in Slot VI (See Section 5.6 below on Valence). However, if the categories of Phase, Sanction, Illocution, and Valence are all in their default modes (i.e., CONTEXTUAL phase, PROPOSITIONAL Sanction, ASSERTIVE illocution, and MONOACTIVE valence), then they normally remained unmarked, i.e., the Cv and VL affixes are deleted and Slots V and VI will be unfilled.

NOTE: If Slots V and VI are filled (whether by the Cv + VL infixes or by the Cx + Vp infixes discussed in Section 6.4), it becomes necessary to be able to distinguish them from the Cr + Vc root + case infixes in Slots VII and VIII (so the reader/listener will be able to tell which consonants and vowels belong to which morpho-phonological slot). This is accomplished in either of two ways:

  1. The Vr vocalic affix in Slot IV must be filled and must be followed by an additional glottal stop . It is this inserted glottal stop that clues the reader/listener that Slots V and VI are filled.

  2. Or, if the formative is unmarked for Mood and Illocution (i.e., the formative has FACTUAL mood and ASSERTIVE illocution), then this Mood/Illocution combination becomes marked by the infix -- in Slot IX. This option is available only where Slots V and VI are filled by Cx + Vp infixes, not Cv + VL infixes.

The values for the Cv affix are shown in Tables 11(a) through 11(f) below. Note that if the formative’s Illocution is already shown by the Ci+Vi infix in Slot IX, then illocution is NOT shown via the Cv infix. In such a case, the Cv infix will display ASSERTIVE illocution only (as a default), i.e., only the values from Table 11(a) below will be utilized for Cv.


Tables 11(a)-(f): Cv infixes:  9 Sanction x 9 Phases x 6 Illocutions

NAME OF
ILLOCUTION
PHASE
LABEL
NAME OF PHASE
SANCTION
1
PPS
2
EPI
3
ALG
4
IPU
5
RFU
6
REB
7
THR
8
EXV
9
AXM
 
 
ASSERTIVE
ASR
CTX
Contextual

t

t’

th

l

tr

tl

tw

ty

PCT
Punctual

k

k’

kh

x

kr

kl

kw

ky

ITR
Iterative

p

p’

ph

vv

pr

pl

pw

py

REP
Repetitive

q

q’

qh

ř

qr

ql

xr

qw

xl

ITM
Intermittent

b

v

vr

vl

br

bl

bw

by

RCT
Recurrent

d

dh

ż

żż

dr

dl

dw

dy

FRE
Frequentative

g

xh

j

jj

gr

gl

gw

gy

FRG
Fragmentative

m

mm

r

rr

mr

ml

mw

my

FLC
Fluctuative

n

nn

ddh

ll

nr

nl

nw

ny



NAME OF
ILLOCUTION
PHASE
LABEL
NAME OF PHASE
SANCTION
1
PPS
2
EPI
3
ALG
4
IPU
5
RFU
6
REB
7
THR
8
EXV
9
AXM
 
 
INTERROGATIVE

IRG
CTX
Contextual

s

ss

sm

sn

sr

sl

sw

sy

PCT
Punctual

š

šš

šm

šn

šr

šl

šř

šw

šy

ITR
Iterative

ç

çç

çm

çn

çl

çr

çř

çw

ly

REP
Repetitive

c

cc

cm

cn

cr

cl

cw

cy

ITM
Intermittent

č

čč

čm

čn

čr

čl

čř

čw

čy

RCT
Recurrent

z

zz

zm

zn

zr

zl

zw

zy

FRE
Frequentative

ž

žž

žm

žn

žr

žl

žř

žw

žy

FRG
Fragmentative

f

ff

fw

fy

fr

fl

vw

vy

FLC
Fluctuative

ţ

ţţ

ţw

ţy

ţr

ţl

ţř

dhw

dhy



NAME OF
ILLOCUTION
PHASE
LABEL
NAME OF PHASE
SANCTION
1
PPS
2
EPI
3
ALG
4
IPU
5
RFU
6
REB
7
THR
8
EXV
9
AXM
 
 
DIRECTIVE
DIR
CTX
Contextual

sk

sk’

skh

zg

skr

skl

skř

skw

sky

PCT
Punctual

st

st’

sth

zd

str

stl

stř

stw

sty

ITR
Iterative

sp

sp’

sph

zb

spr

spl

spř

spw

spy

REP
Repetitive

sq

sq’

sqh

xx

sqr

sql

xw

sqw

řř

ITM
Intermittent

šk

šk’

škh

žg

škr

škl

škř

škw

šky

RCT
Recurrent

št

št’

šth

žd

štr

štl

štř

štw

šty

FRE
Frequentative

šp

šp’

šph

žb

špr

špl

špř

špw

špy

FRG
Fragmentative

šq

šq’

šqh

xxh

šqr

šql

xhw

šqw

řw

FLC
Fluctuative

ň

ňň

rw

ry

ňr

ňl

ňř

ňw

řy



NAME OF
ILLOCUTION
PHASE
LABEL
NAME OF PHASE
SANCTION
1
PPS
2
EPI
3
ALG
4
IPU
5
RFU
6
REB
7
THR
8
EXV
9
AXM
 
 
ADMONITIVE
ADM
CTX
Contextual

ks

kss

ksm

ksn

ksr

ksl

ksř

ksw

ksy

PCT
Punctual

kšš

kšm

kšn

kšr

kšl

kšř

kšw

kšy

ITR
Iterative

ps

pss

psm

psn

psr

psl

psř

psw

psy

REP
Repetitive

pšš

pšm

pšn

pšr

pšl

pšř

pšw

pšy

ITM
Intermittent

gz

gzz

gzm

gzn

gzr

gzl

gzř

gzw

gzy

RCT
Recurrent

gžž

gžm

gžn

gžr

gžl

gžř

gžw

gžy

FRE
Frequentative

bz

bzz

bzm

bzn

bzr

bzl

bzř

bzw

bzy

FRG
Fragmentative

bžž

bžm

bžn

bžr

bžl

bžř

bžw

bžy

FLC
Fluctuative

sx

sxh

šx

šxh

zgr

zgl

zgř

zgw

zgy



NAME OF
ILLOCUTION
PHASE
LABEL
NAME OF PHASE
SANCTION
1
PPS
2
EPI
3
ALG
4
IPU
5
RFU
6
REB
7
THR
8
EXV
9
AXM
 
 
HORTATIVE
HOR
CTX
Contextual

çt

çt’

çth

çtr

çtl

çtř

çtw

çty

PCT
Punctual

çk

çk’

çkh

šţ

çkr

çkl

çkř

çkw

çky

ITR
Iterative

çp

çp’

çph

sf

çpr

çpl

çpř

çpw

çpy

REP
Repetitive

çq

çq’

çqh

šf

çqr

çql

çqř

çqw

çč

ITM
Intermittent

kt

kt’

kth

gd

ktr

ktl

ktř

ktw

kty

RCT
Recurrent

pt

pt’

pth

bd

ptr

ptl

ptř

ptw

pty

FRE
Frequentative

qt

qt’

qth

tk

qtr

qtl

qtř

qtw

qty

FRG
Fragmentative

sc

sc’

sch

db

żr

żl

żř

żw

ży

FLC
Fluctuative

šč

šč’

ščh

dg

jr

jl

jw

jy



NAME OF
ILLOCUTION
PHASE
LABEL
NAME OF PHASE
SANCTION
1
PPS
2
EPI
3
ALG
4
IPU
5
RFU
6
REB
7
THR
8
EXV
9
AXM
 
 
DECLARATIVE
DEC
CTX
Contextual

ct

ct’

cth

tm

ctr

ctl

ctř

ctw

cty

PCT
Punctual

ck

ck’

ckh

km

ckr

ckl

ckř

ckw

cky

ITR
Iterative

cp

cp’

cph

pm

cpr

cpl

cpř

cpw

cpy

REP
Repetitive

cq

cq’

cqh

qm

cqr

cql

gm

cqw

xm

ITM
Intermittent

čt

čt’

čth

tn

čtr

čtl

čtř

čtw

čty

RCT
Recurrent

čk

čk’

čkh

kn

čkr

čkl

čkř

čkw

čky

FRE
Frequentative

čp

čp’

čph

pn

čpr

čpl

čpř

čpw

čpy

FRG
Fragmentative

čq

čq’

čqh

qn

čqr

čql

gn

čqw

xn

FLC
Fluctuative

xt

xt’

xth

pk

xtr

xtl

xtř

xtw

xty


The nine phases are explained in the following sections. The Category of Sanction is explained in Section 5.6.


5.5.1
CTX
The Contextual

The CONTEXTUAL is the default phase, describing a single act, condition, or event as a relatively brief (but not instantaneous), single holistic occurrence considered once, where the actual duration of the occurrence is not relevant in the particular context. It can be visually represented along a progressive timeline by a short dash, e.g.,


5.5.2
PUN
The Punctual

The PUNCTUAL describes an act, condition, or event which is point-like, momentary or instantaneous in nature, such as an explosion, a flash of lightning, a blow, a single handclap, a collision between two objects, a stab of pain, a single cough, the clicking of a lock, etc. It can be visually represented along a timeline by a single point, e.g.,


5.5.3
ITR
The Iterative

The ITERATIVE refers to a momentary or instantaneous event, like the PUNCTUAL above, which repeats itself in a rapid, on/off, staccato manner, like a machine gun burst, strobe light burst, an alarm bell ringing, or the quick unconscious tapping of a finger, the whole comprising a single CONTEXTUAL event.

Visual representation: • • • •


5.5.4
REP
The Repetitive

The REPETITIVE refers to a relatively brief event of indeterminate or vague duration (i.e., as with the CONTEXTUAL phase above), but repeated in an on/off staccato manner, like a car horn being honked repeatedly in a fast steady rhythm, or an automatic machine press. Visual representation: — — ——


5.5.5
ITM
The Intermittent

The INTERMITTENT is similar to the ITERATIVE above, identifying a repetitive occurrence of a PUNCTUAL event, however, unlike the ITERATIVE, the duration of time between repetitions is relatively long and contextually relevant. It would be used in describing the downbeat pattern of a pop song, the ongoing snapping of fingers to music, the steady one-drop-at-a-time dripping of a faucet, etc.

Visual representation:


5.5.6
RCT
The Recurrent

The RECURRENT is to the REPETITIVE as the INTERMITTENT is to the ITERATIVE. It indicates a slow repetition of a CONTEXTUAL event, where the duration between occurrences is relatively long and contextually relevant. Exemplified by the sounding of a foghorn, or the ongoing hooting of an owl.

Visual representation: ——


5.5.7
FRE
The Frequentative

The FREQUENTATIVE indicates an iterative occurrence (a single set of punctual repetitions) which in turn repeats at intervals, the whole considered as a single CONTEXTUAL event. Examples would be the repetitive sets of hammerings of a woodpecker or the repeated short bursts of a jackhammer.

Visual representation: • • • • • • • • • • • •


5.5.8
FRG
The Fragmentative

The FRAGMENTATIVE indicates a random pattern of punctual occurrences, the whole considered as a single CONTEXTUAL event.

Visual representation: • • • • • • • • • • • •• •


5.5.9
FLC
The Fluctuative

The FLUCTUATIVE indicates a random pattern of both punctual and longer occurrences. An example would be the “sputtering” of a lighted fuse, the random patterns of tongues of flames, the chirping of birds in the wild, etc.

Visual representation:— • • • •• • • • • • •— • • •

 

5.5.10 Examples of Phase in Use



Hwe’maklás.   (OR   Hweklàsürn.)

INF-STA-ASR/FRG/PPS-‘rain’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-FML
It may be raining.

 


Iaqantas  altaelgôn.

DYN-ASR/REP/PPS-MNO-‘sound’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘inscribe’-OGN-NRM/PRX/U/ASO/DCT-AGC2/7-IFL
The sound coming from the banks of printers keeps on steadily repeating.

 


Ilarburn  êļnuļ.

DYN-‘voice’-NRM/PRX/U/VAR/AGG-FLC-IFL    STA-‘bird’-IND-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/AGG-IFL
Birds are chirping, tweeting, and calling.

 


5.6 SANCTION

The morphological category of Sanction indicates the discourse-related purpose of an utterance in relation to what sort of truthfulness the listener should ascribe to it. In everyday terms, this corresponds to whether the utterance is a neutral proposition or assertion, an allegation, a rebuttable presumption, a counter-argument, a refutation of an allegation, a rebuttal, etc.

There are nine sanctions: the PROPOSITIONAL, EPISTEMIC, ALLEGATIVE, IMPUTATIVE, REFUTATIVE, REBUTTATIVE, THEORETICAL, EXPATIATIVE, and AXIOMATIC. Sanction is shown by the Cv affix to a formative, depending on the phase (and potentially the illocution) of the verb (discussed in Sections 5.5 and 5.3 respectively). The Cv affix is normally placed in Slot V of the formative’s morphological structure, unless the formative contains an incorporated root (see Section 6.4), in which case Cv is placed in Slot I. (In Section 6.3.3 we will see that Cv can also be placed within a vebal adjunct.)

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
(((Cv)
VL)
Cg/Cs)
Vr
(Cx/Cv
Vp/VL)
Cr
Vc
Ci +Vi
Ca
VxC
(Vf
(’Cb))
[tone]
[stress]

Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)

Valence
Validation
OR
Aspect (+ Mood)
Pattern +
Stem +
Function
Incorp.Root
OR
Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
OR
Valence
Root
Case
Illocution +
Mood
Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Deriv.
Suffix
Context + Format
Bias
Version
Designa-
tion + Relation

As previously noted in the section on Phase, the presence of a Cv infix entails several other morpho-phonological structural requirements potentially affecting Slots IV, VI and IX. See Section 5.5 above for details of these requirements.

Each sanction is explained in the sections below.


5.6.1
PPS
The Propositional

The PROPOSITIONAL sanction is the default sanction, indicating the utterance represents a neutral proposition or assertion of ontologically objective fact, i.e., a statement of fact irrespective of third-party opinion, belief, or interpretation. Example of such statements would be That is a mountain, or I’m hungry.


5.6.2
EPI
The Epistemic

The EPISTEMIC sanction identifies an utterance as being a statement of shared knowledge or conventionalized fact whose ontology is human convention (i.e., agreed-upon knowledge) as opposed to objective fact irrespective of human knowledge. An example would be That mountain is Mount Fuji or The U.N. tries to relieve hunger in the Third World.


5.6.3
ALG
The Allegative

The ALLEGATIVE sanction identifies an utterance as an ontologically subjective assertion or allegation, i.e., a proposition expressing one’s opinion, belief, or interpretation, open to challenge or refutation. Examples would be That mountain is beautiful or No one in the United States goes hungry.


5.6.4
IPU
The Imputative

The IMPUTATIVE sanction identifies an utterance as a rebuttable presumption, i.e., an assertion, whether ontologically objective or by convention, that is to be assumed true unless and until rebutted by a sufficient counter-argument or other evidence. Examples would be He knows how to drive [e.g., because he owns a car] or She can’t be hungry now [e.g., because I saw her come out of the restaurant].


5.6.5
RFU
The Refutative

The REFUTATIVE sanction identifies an utterance as a counter-allegation, refutation, or rebuttal of a previous assertion, allegation or presumption, where the counter-allegation, refutation, or rebuttal is epistemic in nature, i.e., based on shared human knowledge as opposed to ontologically objective fact.


5.6.6
REB
The Rebuttative

The REBUTTATIVE sanction identifies an utterance as a counter-allegation, refutation, or rebuttal of a previous assertion, allegation or presumption, where the counter-allegation, refutation, or rebuttal is based on ontologically objective fact, irrespective of subjective opinion, belief, or interpretation.


5.6.7
THR
The Theoretical

The THEORETICAL sanction identifies an utterance as a testable hypothesis or potentially verifiable theory.


5.6.8
EXV
The Expatiative

The EXPATIATIVE sanction identifies an utterance as a hypothesis or theory that is not necessarily provable or verifiable.


5.6.9
AXM
The Axiomatic

The AXIOMATIC sanction identifies an utterance as a conclusive presumption, i.e., a statement of ontologically objective, pan-experiential fact not open to rational argument or refutation. Examples would be Gravity is ubiquitous, or Hunger is caused by not consuming enough food.


5.6.10 Examples of Sanctions In Use



Them-mphâmnas  osmuil.

ASR/CTX/ALG-PRL-PRS/COU-STA-‘awe’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘valley’-DER-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
The valley would've been awe-inspiring to you, too [i.e., if you had seen/visited/been to it].

 


Tlan-nsachas  ômmil.

ASR/CTX/REB-MNO-CNT-STA-‘sadness’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘female.child’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
On the contrary, the girl is still sad.

 


Pšei’ùlûrţ  lên-nsa  hwaixtasár  öqeil.

STA-‘incident’-PCR-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-EXT1/6-FML     IPU-CPC-CNT    INF-DYN-‘job/employment task’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-NA11/5-FML    STA-‘man’-ACT-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
After an incident like that, it's a fair guess the man won’t be able to work any longer.          LISTEN 

 

5.7 VALENCE

In Ithkuil, the term Valence is used to refer to the manner of participation of two separate entities or parties to any given verb, i.e., participation by one party automatically implies participation by another party to the same act, event, or state in either a parallel, corollary, or complementary fashion. Such dual participation occurs naturally in the verbs of world languages and is the province of what is known as “co-active” verbs. While all languages implicitly have co-active verbs, Ithkuil explicitly shows this dual participation in a formal and systematic way. To illustrate the concept of co-activity in English compare the following pairs of sentences:

1a) I found an old man. 1b) I found an empty can.
2a) I threw the ball at Sam. 2b) I threw the ball at the window.
3a) I performed in front of her. 3b) I performed in front of the wall.

Note that the first member of each sentence pair has an animate object of the verb (an old man, Sam, and her), while the second member of each pair has an inanimate object (an empty can, the window, and the wall). Now compare this set of sentence pairs to the similar set below:

1c) I met an old man. 1d) * I met an empty can.
2c) I threw Sam the ball. 2d) * I threw the window the ball.
3c) I entertained her. 3d) * I entertained the wall.

The asterisk * indicates that the second sentence of these pairs is semantically unacceptable to English speakers. Why? The second set of sentence pairs parallel the first set except that the verbs find, throw at, and perform have been replaced by the semantically similar meet, throw, and entertain. Nevertheless, the use of inanimate objects with these latter three verbs appears unacceptable. The reason is that the verbs in the first set are “mono-active,” i.e., they do not require that the object participate in the action in any way, whereas the verbs in the second set are “co-active,” requiring that the object participate in the action along with the subject. Thus, while I can find an old man without the old man doing anything about it or even being aware of it, I cannot meet an old man without the old man also meeting me. I can throw a ball at Sam without Sam noticing, but if I throw Sam a ball it implies that he is expected to participate by catching it. Similarly, I can perform in front of someone even if they’re asleep, but I can’t entertain them unless they are participating in the situation by observing me. The participatory relationship involving the second party of a co-active verb differs depending on the context. It can be a parallel relationship (i.e., both parties participate identically) as implied by the English adverb ‘together’ in He and I jog together, or a reciprocal relationship as in the sentence I met the old man (i.e., and so he met me) or in verbs used with the adverbial phrase ‘each other,’ as in We love each other. The relationship can be one of accompaniment as in I played along with him (e.g., as he sang), or a complementary relationship as in I threw Sam the ball (i.e., and so he caught it).Other sorts of co-active relationships are possible. It is the differences in these relationships that are systematized in Ithkuil into the category called valence. In English and other languages co-activity is rarely explicit and systematic (the use of adverbs such as ‘together,’ ‘each other,’ or prefixes such as ‘out-’ as in out-perform are some exceptions), and when lexified within a verb itself, are implicitly specific to that verb, giving rise to monoactive/co-active pairs such as find/meet, throw at/throw, perform/entertain, etc. In Ithkuil, co-activity is explicitly shown morphologically, and the types of co-active relationships, i.e., the valences of the verb, are systematic and fully productive for all verbs. As a result, no mono-active versus co-active lexical distinctions are necessary, i.e., all verbs can function monoactively as well as co-actively.

There are fourteen valences in Ithkuil: the MONOACTIVE, PARALLEL, COROLLARY, RECIPROCAL, COMPLEMENTARY, NONRELATIONAL, DUPLICATIVE, DEMONSTRATIVE, RESISTIVE, IMITATIVE, CONTINGENT, PARTICIPATIVE, INDICATIVE, and MUTUAL. Valence is shown by the VL affix to a formative, normally placed in Slot VI of the formative’s morphological structure (following the Cv affix in Slot V), unless the formative contains an incorporated root (see Section 6.4) or a Cs aspect/mood infix in Slot III, in which case VL is placed in Slot II following the Cv affix in Slot I. As per the Note in Section 5.5, the presence of Cv and VL in Slots V and VI require that the Vr infix in Slot IV be followed by a glottal stop .

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
(((Cv)
VL)
Cg/Cs)
Vr
(Cx/Cv
Vp/VL)
Cr
Vc
Ci +Vi
Ca
VxC
(Vf
(’Cb))
[tone]
[stress]

Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)

Valence
Validation
OR
Aspect (+ Mood)
Pattern +
Stem +
Function
Incorp.Root
OR
Phase + Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
OR
Valence
Root
Case
Illocution +
Mood
Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Deriv.
Suffix
Context + Format
Bias
Version
Designa-
tion + Relation


(In Section 6.3.4 we will see that Valence can also be shown via a cosonantal prefix to a verbal adjunct.)

Table 12 below shows the values for the VL affix for each of the fourteen valences.


Table 12: VL Valence Prefixes

 
Label
Valence name
VL
1
MNO
Monoactive
a
2
PRL
Parallel
e
3
CRO
Corollary
o
4
RCP
Reciprocal
i
5
CPL
Complementary
u
6
NNR
Nonrelational
â
7
DUP
Duplicative
ê
8
DEM
Demonstrative
ô
9
RES
Resistive
û / î
10
IMT
Imitative
ai / au
11
CNG
Contingent
ei / eu
12
PTI
Participative
oi / ou
13
IDC
Indicative
ui / iu
14
MUT
Mutual
ö

The fourteen corresponding consonantal prefixes for Valence used with verbal adjuncts are given in Section 6.3.4.

The fourteen valences are explained as follows:

5.7.1
MNO
The Monoactive

The MONOACTIVE valence is the default valence and indicates a lack of co-activity, i.e., no participation by a second party is implied.

 

5.7.2
PRL
The Parallel

The PARALLEL valence indicates that a second party is engaging in the same activity as the first party at same time. It would be used in translating sentences such as The children all sang together, We both went jogging on the parkway.

 

5.7.3
CRO
The Corollary

The COROLLARY valence is similar to the PARALLEL, except that the second party engages in related activity at the same time as the first party, rather than the same activity. It would be used in translating sentences such as The children played in the yard (i.e., each child engaged in a different play activity) or The band played my favorite song (implying that not everyone in the band was playing the same instrument, or perhaps that someone in the band sang as opposed to playing an instrument).

 

5.7.4
RCP
The Reciprocal

The RECIPROCAL valence indicates identical activity by each party directed at the other, thus translating the English adverbial phrases ‘each other’ and ‘one another,’ as in They looked at each other, The clown and the grocer despise one another.

 

5.7.5
CPL
The Complementary

The COMPLEMENTARY valence indicates that the second party performs a complementary activity to that of the first party. By “complementary” is meant an activity different from that of the first party, but necessary to complete the whole of the joint activity, i.e., the “other half” of the joint activity. This is exemplified in sentences such as The man and his son played catch, Hortense took me into the woods, The clown read the children a story, My back itches so I scratch it, where ‘played catch’ implies the complementary activities of throwing and catching, ‘took (into the woods)’ implies someone leading while the other follows, ‘read’ implies a reader and an audience, and ‘itches’ implies scratching.

 

5.7.6
NNR
The Nonrelational

The NONRELATIONAL valence indicates that a second party engages in a completely unrelated activity from the first, i.e., an incidental or circumstantial co-activity. There is no direct way to exemplify this valence in English translation other than to add a periphrastic clause such as ‘while the other did something else’ as in He shaved while she did something else. The way an Ithkuil sentence would utilize this valence would be in sentences overtly constructed to say, for example, ‘They were in the house’ with the NONRELATIONAL valence rendering a connotation of ‘…where one party was doing one thing while the other did something else.’

 

5.7.7
DUP
The Duplicative

The DUPLICATIVE valence indicates that the second party copies or repeats the activity of the first party, as in the sentences Let’s draw a picture (i.e., I’ll draw it first, then you draw the same picture), They both read that book (i.e., first one, then the other), I bought a new car (i.e., and now someone else is buying a new car, too).

 

5.7.8
DEM
The Demonstrative

The DEMONSTRATIVE valence indicates that the first party demonstrates for the second party how to do something or what to do. Thus an Ithkuil sentence constructed as We played chess with the verb in the DEMONSTRATIVE valence would mean ‘I showed her how to play chess,’ while the sentence constructed as They fought us in this valence would mean ‘They taught us how to fight.’

 

5.7.9
RES
The Resistive

The RESISTIVE valence indicates that the second party resists or attempts to avoid participating in the activity of the first party. This sense can sometimes be suggested in English using the adverbs ‘anyway,’ ‘nevertheless,’ or adverbial phrases such as ‘just the same,’ as in sentences such as We took the children to see the clowns anyway (i.e., they didn’t want to go), They fed me liver just the same (i.e., I can’t stand liver), Nevertheless, he told us the story (i.e., despite our not wanting to hear it).

 

5.7.10
IMT
The Imitative

The IMITATIVE valence indicates that the second party mimics, imitates, or attempts to duplicate the activity of the first party. The Ithkuil sentence The clown juggled three balls for the child in the IMITATIVE valence implies that the child attempted to juggle the balls as well.

 

5.7.11
CNG
The Contingent

The CONTINGENT valence indicates that the second party engages in the next or dependent phase of a multi-part activity, the specific activity being dependent on context. Thus the Ithkuil sentence I started the campfire for my friend in the CONTINGENT implies that the friend then performed the next logical step, i.e., he cooked the food.

 

5.7.12
PTI
The Participative

The PARTICIPATIVE valence indicates that the parties take part in an activity involving a greater whole, translatable by the English phrase ‘take part in.…’ Thus, the Ithkuil sentence They raced in the PARTICIPATIVE means ‘They each took part in the race.’

 

5.7.13
IDC
The Indicative

The INDICATIVE valence indicates that the second party perceives a cue, nuance, or implication from the first party’s activity. Thus the sentence I looked at her in the INDICATIVE would mean ‘She understood what I meant from my looking at her’ while the sentence I spoke to them would mean ‘They gleaned what I really meant from my words.’

 

5.7.14
MUT
The Mutual

The MUTUAL valence indicates that both parties alternate performing an activity, as in She and I take turns cleaning or They both alternate teaching the beginning and advanced classes.



5.7.15 Examples of Valence in Use



Tö  ¯um-mixhakc’éçt  eglelôn  ükšàleač.
        
1M-EFF       CPL-SUB-DYN-‘study’-NRM/GRA/M/CSL/UNI-FML-CVT1/3-CPT        STA-‘illness’-ABS-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-AGC2/7-IFL
FRAMED-FML-MNF-‘clown’-OBL-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-QUA2/8

I may secretly teach the doctor to be a truly oustanding clown.
              


Il-lrazgall  eqill.
RCP-HAB-STA-‘smile’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/DPX-IFL    STA-‘person’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/DPX-IFL
The couple are always smiling at each other.
         LISTEN 



Uin-ntixal  ömmul  ekšíl.

IDC-SUB/RTR-DYN-‘see’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘father’-IND-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL STA-‘clown’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-FML
Maybe the clown understood the meaning of father’s look.



Ailtac  wëtöin-n  qeiwi.

DYN-‘write.message’-NRM/DEL/A/CSL/UNI-IFL   RCP-PPS/CTX/ASR-DVR-FAC     ma-ACT-CSL-NRM/DPX
The two of them like writing to each other.

 


Em-mrigradh  ekšóll  âmmeļ.

PRL-PRS-DYN-‘eat/drink food’-NRM/PRX/N/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘clown’-ERG-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/DPX-FML    STA-‘child’-ABS-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/AGG-IFL
The pair of clowns will make the children eat together from now on.

 


A’tukças  tê  oxnall
STA-PPS/CTX/ASR-CPL-‘itch’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    1m-GEN    STA-‘back’-OBL-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/DPX-IFL
My back itches so I scratch it.
         LISTEN 

 


Them-mphâmnas  osmuil.

ASR/CTX/ALG-PRL-PRS/COU-STA-‘awe’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘valley’-DER-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
You, too, would've found the valley to be awe-inspiring [i.e., if you had seen/visited/been to it].          

NOTE: The example sentence immediately above is interesting in that there is no overt reference in the Ithkuil sentence to any subject “you.” The idea that there are two parties involved, i.e., the speaker and the listener(s), is conveyed solely by the presence of PARALLEL valence. Without PRL valence, the sentence would simply mean ‘the valley would have been awe-inspiring’; the added PRL valence implies the speaker is alleging to another party (i.e., the listener/reader) that the latter would have also enjoyed the valley's awesomeness.

 

5.8 VERSION

Version refers to a six-way aspectual distinction indicating whether the verb refers to an act, event or state which is goal- or result-oriented, and/or whether it has been successfully actualized subsequent to one’s initial intention. Like many Ithkuil morphological categories, version addresses semantic distinctions which are usually rendered by lexical differentiation (i.e., word choice) in other languages.

Version is shown by the formative’s tone (see Section 1.3.2 for an explanation of how tone functions in Ithkuil formatives). The six versions are PROCESSUAL, COMPLETIVE, INEFFECTUAL, INCOMPLETIVE, POSITIVE and EFFECTIVE.

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
(((Cv)
VL)
Cg/Cs)
Vr
(Cx/Cv
Vp/VL)
Cr
Vc
Ci +Vi
Ca
VxC
(Vf
(’Cb))
[tone]
[stress]

Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)

Valence
Validation
OR
Aspect (+ Mood)
Pattern +
Stem +
Function
Incorp.Root
OR
Phase + Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
OR
Valence
Root
Case
Illocution +
Mood
Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Deriv.
Suffix
Context + Format
Bias
Version
Designa-
tion + Relation

The six versions are explained below:


5.8.1
PRC
The Processual

The PROCESSUAL version is marked by falling tone. It is the default version and describes all acts, conditions, or events which are ends in themselves and not goal-oriented, i.e., are not focused on an anticipated outcome or final purpose toward which a progressive effort is being made.

 

5.8.2
CPT
The Completive

The COMPLETIVE version is marked by high tone. It describes acts, conditions, or events which achieve, or are intended to achieve, an anticipated outcome, i.e., which are oriented toward the achievement of some purpose, outcome, or final state. Such a distinction is usually handled by word choice in Western languages. The dynamism of Version can be seen in the following comparisons:

PROCESSUAL → COMPLETIVE

hunt → to hunt down
to be losing → to lose
to study → to learn
to be winning → to win
to strive for → to accomplish, achieve
to risk → to defeat the odds; win
to work → to build, construct, make
to displace; infiltrate → infest, to take over; vanquish
to pour out → to drain
to remove (incrementally) → to eliminate
to increase → to maximize
to read → to read to the end; finish reading
to decrease → minimize
to flank → to surround
to enlarge → to make gigantic
to spread upon or over → to cover, engulf, envelop
to shrink → miniaturize
to chase → to catch up to
to eat → eat all up
to pursue → to capture
to compete → to win
to be pregnant → to give birth
to throw at → to hit (with a throw)
to run low on → to run out of, deplete
to grow → to grow up
to use → use up
to possess, hold → to keep
to tear/ rip → to tear/rip up or to pieces
to join together → to unify
to accelerate, speed up → to achieve maximum speed
to pour into → to fill (up)
to bleed → to bleed to death
to run → to run all the way
to descend, go down → to get to the bottom
to brighten → to illuminate
to decelerate, slow down → to stop
to search for, seek → to find
to polish → to burnish
to practice → to perfect
to darken → to make dark
to ascend, rise → to reach the top
to explore → to discover


5.8.3
INE
The Ineffectual

The INEFFECTUAL version is marked by rising tone. It, and the INCOMPLETIVE which follows, operate in parallel fashion to the PROCESSUAL and the COMPLETIVE versions respectively but are specific to acts, events, or states initially expressed (whether explicitly or implicitly) as unrealized intentions, attempts, desires, needs, etc., often in conjunction with a modality affix to the verb (see Section 6.1). Such “unrealized” verbs are exemplified in the following sentences: I want to dance, She needs to work, I tried to finish, She must find him, I choose to celebrate. Each of these sentences in itself does not specify whether the action was “realized” or not, i.e., just because I want to dance doesn’t necessarily mean that I actually do dance; her need to work doesn’t tell us by itself whether she in fact will work, etc.

The INEFFECTUAL version indicates that the outcome of an “unrealized” PROCESSUAL verb is unsuccessful. Thus the sentence I want to dance in the INEFFECTUAL would be translated as I want to dance but I’m not going to, while the sentence I tried to eat in the INEFFECTUAL means I tried to eat but couldn’t.

 

5.8.4
INC
The Incompletive

The INCOMPLETIVE version is marked by low tone. It indicates that the outcome of an “unrealized” COMPLETIVE verb is unsuccessful. It functions identically to the INEFFECTUAL, except that it refers to a verb that is result/goal-oriented, as illustrated in the comparative chart shown above for the COMPLETIVE version. Thus, the sentence I tried to eat in the INCOMPLETIVE means I tried to eat all of it but couldn’t.

 

5.8.5
PST
The Positive

The POSITIVE version is marked by rising-falling tone. Complementing the INEFFECTUAL, the POSITIVE indicates an intention brought to reality. Thus the sentence I want to dance in the POSITIVE would be translated as I want to dance and so I’m going to, while the sentence I tried to eat in the POSITIVE means I succeeded in eating something.

 

5.8.6
EFC
The Effective

Likewise, the EFFECTIVE version complements the INCOMPLETIVE, indicating the same successful effort implied by the POSITIVE version, only applied to goal-/result-oriented verbs. Thus I wanted to finish in the EFFECTIVE implies that the desire was successfully carried out; I tried to eat in the EFFECTIVE means I succeeded in eating it all up. The EFFECTIVE is marked by falling-rising tone.


5.8.7 Examples of Version in Use



ˇIxhát’  êpal  Iţkuil  efneil  tê.

DYN-‘study’-NRM/TRM/M/CSL/UNI-FML-EFC    STA-[carrier stem]-OBL-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI       “Ithkuil”     STA-‘male cousin’-ACT-DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    1M-GEN    
My cousin has finally learned Ithkuil.          LISTEN 

 

      →     
Uakal  egruláun.     →    ¯Uakal  egruláun.

[PRC]-DYN-‘come’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL     STA-‘prepare.food’-IND-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-AGC2/2-FML    
 →    
  CPT-DYN-‘come’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL         STA-‘prepare.food’-IND-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-AGC2/2-FML

The cook is on his way.      →      The cook has arrived.          LISTEN 

 


5.9 VALIDATION

Validation expresses the degree or type of evidence supporting a statement, a grammatical requirement of Ithkuil. Such categories are usually termed “evidentials” or “factives” in various non-Western languages which have them. There are 14 validations in Ithkuil, five refer to non-hearsay types of evidence, while nine refer to hearsay situations. These nine hearsay categories are distinguished by a two-fold matrix of whether the source of the hearsay is considered by the speaker to be trustworthy and whether the statement/information is potentially verifiable. The exactitude of Ithkuil evidential categories is impossible to capture in English translation except through cumbersome paraphrase, but can be approximated in a rough way using phrases such as reportedly, presumably, supposedly, purportedly, allegedly, rumour has it, I have a feeling that, etc.

The 14 validations are shown by a consonantal prefix Cg in Slot III.

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
(((Cv)
VL)
Cg/Cs)
Vr
(Cx/Cv
Vp/VL)
Cr
Vc
Ci +Vi
Ca
VxC
(Vf
(’Cb))
[tone]
[stress]

Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)

Valence
Validation
OR
Aspect (+ Mood)
Pattern +
Stem +
Function
Incorp.Root
OR
Phase + Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
OR
Valence
Root
Case
Illocution +
Mood
Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Deriv.
Suffix
Context + Format
Bias
Version
Designa-
tion + Relation


The values for the Cg prefix are shown in Table 13 below as well as the meaning (description of evidential basis) of each validation.


Table 13(a) and (b): Cg Validation Prefixes


 
Label
Name
Cg
Evidential Basis
1
CNF
CONFIRMATIVE
(h-)*
direct observation/knowledge and verifiable by others
2
AFM
AFFIRMATIVE
y-
direct observation/knowledge but unknown verifiability by others
3
RPT
REPORTIVE
w-
direct observation/knowledge but unverifiable by others
4
INF
INFERENTIAL
hw-
inference
5
ITU
INTUITIVE
hh-
intuition/feeling
* The CONFIRMATIVE Validation is unmarked unless the formative displays a VL value in Slot II, in which case Cg is h-.


Hearsay Categories

 
Label
Name
Cv
Source
Trustworthy?
Verifiable?
6
PSM
PRESUMPTIVE
hm-
Yes
Yes
7
PSM2
PRESUMPTIVE 2
hn-
Yes
Unknown
8
PPT
PURPORTIVE
hr-
Yes
No
9
PPT2
PURPORTIVE 2
lw-
Unknown
Yes
10
CJT
CONJECTURAL
ly-
Unknown
Unknown
11
DUB
DUBITATIVE
rw-
Unknown
No
12
TEN
TENTATIVE
ry-
No
Yes
13
PUT
PUTATIVE
řw-
No
Unknown
14
IPB
IMPROBABLE
řy-
No
No



5.9.1 Examples of Validation in Use

                    
Qö  ¯uhmixhákc’  eglelôn  ükšàwëla.

ma-EFF       CPT-CPL-PSM-DYN-‘study’-GRA/M/CSL/UNI-FML    STA-‘illness’-ABS-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-AGC2/7-IFL     FRAMED/FML-MNF-‘clown’-OBL-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI
Presumably he is teaching the doctor to be a clown.         

 


Ihrazgallamz  eqill.

RCP-PPT-STA-‘smile’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/DPX-MOT2/5-IFL    STA-‘person’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/DPX-IFL
Purportedly, the couple can’t help smiling at each other.          

 


Irwailtac  qeiwi.

RCP-DUB-DYN-‘write.message’-NRM/DEL/A/CSL/UNI-IFL       ma-ACT-CSL-NRM/DPX
Supposedly the two of them write to each other but who knows if it’s true or not.         

 


5.10 ASPECT

Aspect provides detailed and specific temporal information about the verb, not in relation to the speaker’s present moment of utterance (as with Perspective in Sec. 3.3), but rather in relation to the contextual “present” of the act, condition, or event being spoken about. There are 32 aspects in Ithkuil. For the most part, they translate various common adverbial phrases used in English.

Generally, Aspect is usually shown by affixes to a verbal adjunct, since such adjuncts allow for a second aspect to be conveyed, and any other morphological information carried by the adjunct requires the adjunct to carry an aspectual marker as well. However, it is also possible to show a single aspect within the formative itself, by means of the Cs consonantal prefix in Slot III. Such an alernative would be available when Slots I and II of the formative are filled, thus requiring the presence of either Cg or Cs in Slot III.

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
(((Cv)
VL)
Cg/Cs)
Vr
(Cx/Cv
Vp/VL)
Cr
Vc
Ci +Vi
Ca
VxC
(Vf
(’Cb))
[tone]
[stress]

Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)

Valence
Validation
OR
Aspect ( + Mood)
Pattern +
Stem +
Function
Incorp.Root
OR
Phase + Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
OR
Valence
Root
Case
Illocution +
Mood
Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Deriv.
Suffix
Context + Format
Bias
Version
Designa-
tion + Relation


The Cs consonantal affix will always contain one of the specialized dyssyllabic geminate clusters described in Section 1.2.1.3, written n-n, m-m, l-l, r-r, etc. or various other syllabic consonant clusters, e.g., l-m, l-n, r-m, r-n, and r-ň. The only appearance in Ithkuil of these specialized consonantal clusters is in the Cs affix used in Slot III of formatives (as well as in Slot D of verbal adjuncts, discussed in Section 6.0). In this way, the reader/listener can always distinguish whether the consonantal form in Slot III represents Cs showing Aspect as opposed to Cg showing Validation (see Section 5.9 above).

Besides showing Aspect, Cs also shows Mood. If the formative’s Mood is already shown via the Ci+Vi infix in Slot IX (see Section 5.2), then Cs will show a FACTUAL mood solely as a placeholder/default value, and only the Aspect value of Cs will be semantically active.

The values for Cs are shown in Table 14 below. (The forms of alternate vocalic affixes used for showing Aspect within verbal adjuncts will be discussed in Section 6.3.1.)


Table 14: Values for Cs (32 Aspects x 8 Moods)

 

   
MOOD

Aspect

 

FAC

SUB

ASM

SPC

COU

HYP

IPL

ASC

 

none

 

n-n

m-m

l-l

r-r

ň-ň

r-n

l-ň

r-ň

1

RTR
RETROSPECTIVE

n-nr

n-nt

n-nt’

n-nd

n-nth

n-nţ

n-ndh

n-nh

2

PRS
PROSPECTIVE

m-mr

m-mp

m-mp’

m-mb

m-mph

m-mf

m-mv

m-mh

3

HAB
HABITUAL

l-lr

l-lt

l-lt’

l-ld

l-lth

l-lţ

l-ldh

l-lh

4

PRG
PROGRESSIVE

r-rn

r-rt

r-rt’

r-rd

r-rth

r-rţ

r-rdh

r-rh

5

IMM
IMMINENT

ň-ňr

ň-ňk

ň-ňk’

ň-ňg

ň-ňkh

ň-ňx

ň-ňq

ň-ňh

6

PCS
PRECESSIVE

n-nw

n-ntw

n-nt’w

n-ndw

n-nthw

n-nţw

n-ndhw

n-nhw

7

REG
REGULATIVE

m-mw

m-mpw

m-mp’w

m-mbw

m-mphw

m-mfw

m-mvw

m-mhw

8

EXP
EXPERIENTIAL

l-lw

l-ltw

l-lt’w

l-ldw

l-lthw

l-lţw

l-ldhw

l-lhw

9

RSM
RESUMPTIVE

r-rw

r-rtw

r-rt’w

r-rdw

r-rthw

r-rţw

r-rdhw

r-rhw

10

CSS
CESSATIVE

ň-ňw

ň-ňkw

ň-ňk’w

ň-ňgw

ň-ňkhw

ň-ňxw

ň-ňqw

ň-ňhw

11

RCS
RECESSATIVE

n-ny

n-nty

n-nt’y

n-ndy

n-nthy

n-nţy

n-ndhy

n-nç

12

PAU
PAUSAL

m-my

m-mpy

m-mp’y

m-mby

m-mphy

m-mfy

m-mvy

m-mç

13

RGR
REGRESSIVE

l-ly

l-lty

l-lt’y

l-ldy

l-lthy

l-lţy

l-ldhy

l-lç

14

PCL
PRECLUSIVE

r-ry

r-rty

r-rt’y

r-rdy

r-rthy

r-rţy

r-rdhy

r-rç

15

CNT
CONTINUATIVE

n-ns

n-nz

n-nsw

n-nzw

n-nc’

n-nch

n-nc’w

n-nchw

16

ICS
INCESSATIVE

m-ms

m-mz

m-msw

m-mzw

m-mc’

m-mch

m-mc’w

m-mchw

17
PMP
PREEMPTIVE

ň-ňs

ň-ňz

ň-ňsw

ň-ňzw

ň-ňc’

ň-ňch

ň-ňc’w

ň-ňchw

18
CLM
CLIMACTIC

l-ls

l-lz

l-lsw

l-lzw

l-lc’

l-lch

l-lc’w

l-lchw

19
PTC
PROTRACTIVE

r-rs

r-rz

r-rsw

r-rzw

r-rc’

r-rch

r-rc’w

r-rchw

20
TMP
TEMPORARY

n-nš

n-nž

n-nšw

n-nžw

n-nč’

n-nčh

n-nč’w

n-nčhw

21
MTV
MOTIVE

m-mš

m-mž

m-mšw

m-mžw

m-mč’

m-mčh

m-mč’w

m-mčhw

22
CSQ
CONSEQUENTIAL

ň-ňš

ň-ňž

ň-ňšw

ň-ňžw

ň-ňč’

ň-ňčh

ň-ňč’w

ň-ňčhw

23
SQN
SEQUENTIAL

l-lš

l-lž

l-lšw

l-lžw

l-lč’

l-lčh

l-lč’w

l-lčhw

24
EPD
EXPEDITIVE

r-rš

r-rž

r-ršw

r-ržw

r-rč’

r-rčh

r-rč’w

r-rčhw

25
DCL
DISCLUSIVE

n-nļ

m-mļ

ň-ňļ

n-ntļ

m-mtļ

ň-ňtļ

l-ltļ

r-rtļ

26
CCL
CONCLUSIVE

l-lm

l-lļ

n-nl

ň-ňm

m-mř

m-mt

ň-ňt

ň-ňn

27
CUL
CULMINATIVE

r-rm

r-rl

m-ml

m-mn

r-mř

m-mt’

ň-ňt’

ň-ňç

28
IMD
INTERMEDIATIVE

l-ln

l-nļ

l-lř

n-nm

ň-ňř

m-mth

ň-ňth

ň-ňţ

29
TRD
TARDATIVE

l-nw

l-ny

l-lg

l-lgw

l-lx

l-lxw

l-lv

l-lcw

30
TNS
TRANSITIONAL

r-nw

r-my

r-rg

r-rgw

r-rx

r-rxw

r-rv

r-rcw

31
ITC
INTERCOMMUTATIVE

l-mw

l-my

l-lb

l-lbw

l-lf

l-lfw

l-ňw

l-lčw

32
CSM
CONSUMPTIVE

r-mw

r-ny

r-rb

r-rbw

r-rf

r-rfw

r-ňw

r-rčw


The thirty-two aspectual categories are explained below.

5.10.1
RTR
    RETROSPECTIVE

This aspect operates in conjunction with Perspective (see Sec. 3.3) to create various equivalents to Western tense categories. With the MONADIC, the RETROSPECTIVE can be translated by English ‘have already’ as in I’ve already done it. With the UNBOUNDED, the RETROSPECTIVE is equates with the English simple past tense. With the NOMIC and ABSTRACT, it adds a sense of ‘and it’s always been that way’ to the verb.


5.10.2
PRS
    PROSPECTIVE

Like the RETROSPECTIVE above, this aspect operates in conjunction with Perspective to create various equivalents to Western tense categories. With the MONADIC, the PROSPECTIVE equates with the English future tense. With the UNBOUNDED, it can be translated by the English future perfect (i.e., ‘will have…’). With the NOMIC and ABSTRACT, it adds a sense of ‘and it’ll always be that way’ or ‘from now on’ to the verb.


5.10.3
HAB
    HABITUAL

When used with the MONADIC perspective, this aspect conveys the idea of ‘always’ or ‘continues to’, while with the UNBOUNDED, the English ‘used to’ construction offers an equivalent translation, as in She used to come see me on Wednesdays.


5.10.4
PRG
    PROGRESSIVE

This aspect conveys the idea of an act in progress, similar to the English construction ‘in the midst of [verb] + ing’ or the use of the present participle in Spanish.


5.10.5
IMM
    IMMINENT

Conveys that an action, state or event is imminent. Translates phrases such as ‘(just) about to’ or ‘on the verge of’ as in I think Carl is about to cry.


5.10.6
PCS
    PRECESSIVE

Conveys that an action, state or event has immediately preceded. Translates such phrases as ‘just’ or ‘just now,’ as in We just saw a clown in the toy store.


5.10.7
REG
    REGULATIVE

Conveys the idea of participation or involvement in an action, state, or event over an amount of time extending from the past into the future relative to the contextual present. Translates English phrases such as ‘engaged in’ or ‘involved in’ as in Her husband is engaged in construction of the new bridge.


5.10.8
EPR
    EXPERIENTIAL

Translates English ‘ever’ in the sense of ‘within the realm of one’s experience’ or ‘at some point in one’s experience,’ as in Does he ever shut up? Note the EXPERIENTIAL does not equate to ‘ever’ when it means ‘always,’ as in Ever does he seek his destiny nor as an adverb of mere emphasis as in Was she ever tired.


5.10.9
RSM
    RESUMPTIVE

Conveys the idea of an act, state, or event resuming after having previously ceased, as in The girl resumed singing, or He is starting to laugh again.


5.10.10
CSS
    CESSATIVE

Conveys the idea of cessation of an event, state or action. Translates English phrases such as ‘stop,’ ‘discontinue,’ or ‘cease,’ as in They stopped dancing at midnight.


5.10.11
RCS
    RECESSATIVE

Conveys the idea of cessation of event again, after having previously ceased then resumed, as in Lyudmila stopped eating yet again in order to enjoy a quick interlude with the neighborhood clown.


5.10.12
PAU
    PAUSAL

Indicates a pause in an action, state or event, with an implied intention to resume. Translates phrases such as ‘take a break from’ or ‘pause in’ as in Mother took a break from cleaning to gossip with her friends.


5.10.13
RGR
    REGRESSIVE

Conveys the idea of a return to an original or previous action, state or event after a long hiatus involving an intervening change of state or situation, as translated by the phrase ‘return to.’ The REGRESSIVE should be distinguished from the RESUMPTIVE above, which merely implies the restarting after a stop or pause without an intervening change of state or situation. An example would be Mr. Yates returned to golf after recovering from his stroke.


5.10.14
PCL
    PRECLUSIVE

Conveys the fact that an action, state, or event takes place from inception to conclusion all in one contextual segment, translating such phrases as ‘all at once,’ ‘all in one go,’ ‘without stopping,’ etc. as in Walter drank the entire bottle in one gulp.


5.10.15
CNT
    CONTINUATIVE

Conveys the idea that an action, event, or state continues on. Translates phrases such as ‘keep on,’ ‘still,’ ‘stay,’ ‘yet,’ etc. When used in a negative sentence, conveys the idea of English ‘no longer’ or ‘not anymore’ as in She kept on singing, You’re still staring at me, I’ve yet to meet him, Sam no longer loves you / Sam doesn’t love you anymore.


5.10.16
ICS
    INCESSATIVE

Conveys that an action, state or event continues on without stopping. Translates such English adverbials as ‘…on and on’ or ‘…away’ as in They danced the night away or They’ve been battling on and on since last year.


5.10.17
PMP
    PREEMPTIVE

Emphasizes the singularity and initial occurrence of an action, state or event, as translated by such English phrases as ‘for once’ or ‘just once,’ as well as the anticipation preceding a long-expected situation, as translated by phrases such as ‘at last,’ ‘after all this time,’ ‘finally,’ and ‘for the first time.’


5.10.18
CLM
    CLIMACTIC

Emphasizes the finality of an action, state or event, as translated by such English phrases as ‘once and for all’ or ‘for the last time.’


5.10.19
PTC
    PROTRACTIVE

Conveys that an action, state or event takes place over a long period of time. If used with the CONTEXTUAL or PUNCTUAL phases, or with formatives describing naturally brief durations, the PROTRACTIVE conveys the idea of the act or event being long-delayed. Example usages: It rained for quite a while, We shared a long kiss, That slap to his face was a long time coming.


5.10.20
TMP
    TEMPORARY

Conveys that an action, state or event is being considered or is applicable only to the present subjective context or range of the contextual present, as translated by phrases such as ‘for the time being’ or ‘but only for the moment’ or ‘for now’ as in This will be sufficient for now or For the time being you’ll have to drink water.


5.10.21
MTV
    MOTIVE

Conveys that an action, state or event involves physical removal or absence of the participant from the present context of discourse. Translates such phrases as ‘be off …-ing’ or ‘go off to …’ as in Dad’s off hunting or They went off to cavort with the clowns.


5.10.22
CSQ
    CONSEQUENTIAL

This aspect conveys the idea of proceeding or engaging in an action or event despite the possibility of adverse consequences. It translates the English phrases such as ‘go ahead and’ or ‘anyway,’ as in She went ahead and bought the furniture or I decided to go there anyway.


5.10.23
SQN
    SEQUENTIAL

This aspect conveys the idea a “sequential progressive” in which a series of contextually identical instances is seen as comprising a single event, usually with an implied culmination point. It translates the English use of ‘off’ as in He's checking off each item as it is inventoried, or The sheep died off from the disease.


5.10.24
EPD
    EXPEDITIVE

Conveys a sense of haste associated with an action or event. Translates English ‘hurry (up)’ as in Hurry up and finish or They ate in a hurry.


5.10.25
DCL
    DISCLUSIVE

Focuses on the revelatory nature of an action, state or event, translating phrases such as ‘turn out to be,’ ‘turn out that…’ and ‘be revealed that….’


5.10.26
CCL
    CONCLUSIVE

Conveys the direct outcome of an action, state or event within the short-term context of the situation at hand. Translates phrases such as ‘end up…, come to, reach the point where,’ as in I ended up crashing the car or He drank to the point where he passed out.


5.10.27
CUL
    CULMINATIVE

Similar to the CONCLUSIVE above, but with a focus on the eventual, long-term outcome over an extended period of time or through a series of developmental steps. Compare the following examples with the CONCLUSIVE aspect above: In the end, I’ll have to leave town; Things got to the point where the mayor got involved; Eventually, they fell in love.


5.10.28
IMD
    INTERMEDIATIVE

Conveys the idea that the action, state, or event takes place at some point along the timeline of, or within the duration of, another action, state, event, or background context, as translated by the phrases ‘at some point’ or ‘somewhere along the way….’


5.10.29
TRD
    TARDATIVE

Conveys the idea that an action, state, or event lessens, dwindles, or slackens in energy, intensity, or effect, impliedly by exhaustion of the active source of energy or agency, or by dissipation of the foundational context involved. Translates such phrases as ‘to get tired of,’ ‘peter out,’ ‘trail off,’ etc.


5.10.30
TNS
    TRANSITIONAL

Focuses on the initial stage of preparation, adjustment, or accustomization to an action, state or event, translated by phrases such as ‘take up,’ ‘start to,’ etc. implying a long-term process of initialization, as in I’m planning to take up golf.


5.10.31
ITC
    INTERCOMMUTATIVE

Conveys the idea of “sequential reciprocity,” meaning that the action or event is a consequent reciprocation triggered by, or in reaction to, an initiating action or event. It translates the English verbal particle ‘back’ as in The boy threw it back or She stared back at the men ogling her.


5.10.32 CSM     CONSUMPTIVE

Conveys an all-consuming action, state, or event which interferes with or prevents other events from occurring. It translates English phrases such as ‘spend one’s time’ or ‘away’ as in Mother spends her life worrying or He’s pining away.

 


5.10.33 Examples of Aspect In Use



Al-lsinyat  eqţulisqa  tê.

MNO-CLM-DYN-‘choose’-NRM/DEL/U/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘brother’-IND-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-DCS2/1-IFL    1M-GEN
My indecisive brother made a choice once and for all.

 


Al-lyuolmát  êqul.

MNO-RGR-DYN-‘sing.a.song’-NRM/DEL/U/CSL/UNI-FML     STA-‘woman’-IND-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
The woman returned to singing.

 


Çtar-ryo  igraleiţrar  eglulôn.

HOR/CTX/PPS-PCL-HAB     DYN-‘eat.food’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-NA11/5-EXT2/6-IFL     STA-‘illness’-IND-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-AGC2/7-IFL
If only the physician wouldn’t always eat his food in one gulp like that.

 


Lêr-rwia  hwaixtasár  öqeil.

ASR/CTX/IPU-CPC-RSM-TMP     INF-DYN-‘job/employment.task’-PRX/M/ASO/UNI-NA11/5-FML     STA-‘man’-ACT-DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
I’d venture to say the man won't be able to resume working anytime soon.

 


5.11 BIAS

Bias expresses the general, overall subjective/emotional attitude or perspective in which the speaker regards the action. There are 24 basic bias categories, each of which has an additional “intensive” form which often warrants a change in English translation.


5.11.1 Bias Categories and Usage

Bias is shown as a word-final consonantal suffix to formative with a glottal stop being infixed between the suffix and the Vf mood/context suffix, e.g., uprexalo’ss. (The glottal stop is necessary so that the reader/listener does not confuse it with a word-final VxC suffix in Slot XI.

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
(((Cv)
VL)
Cg/Cs)
Vr
(Cx/Cv
Vp/VL)
Cr
Vc
Ci +Vi
Ca
VxC
(Vf
(’Cb))
[tone]
[stress]

Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)

Valence
Validation
OR
Aspect (+ Mood)
Pattern +
Stem +
Function
Incorp.Root
OR
Phase + Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
OR
Valence
Root
Case

Illocution +
Mood

Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Deriv.
Suffix
Context + Format
Bias
Version
Designa-
tion + Relation


NOTE: We will see in Section 6.3.2 that, as an alternative to the Cb bias suffix on a formative, Bias can instead be shown via a word-final consonantal suffix to to a verbal adjunct.

These Cb affix forms are shown in Table 15 below. The forms to the right of the arrow are the “intensive” forms described above. The 24 biases are explained following the table.


Table 15: Morpho-Phonological Markers for Bias

 
LABEL
NAME OF BIAS
Cb AFFIX →
Cb INTENSIVE AFFIX
1
ASU
ASSURATIVE n → nn
2
HPB
HYPERBOLIC m → mm
3
COI
COINCIDENTAL ň → ňň
4
ACP
ACCEPTIVE

ţ → ţţ

5
RAC
REACTIVE ç → çç
6
STU
STUPEFACTIVE s → ss
7
CTV
CONTEMPLATIVE z → zz
8
DPV
DESPERATIVE š → šš
9
RVL
REVELATIVE l → ll
10
GRT
GRATIFICATIVE r → rr
11
SOL
SOLICITIVE ř → řř
12
SEL
SELECTIVE ļ  → ļļ
13
IRO
IRONIC kç → kçç
14
EXA
EXASPERATIVE pļ → pļļ
15
LTL
LITERAL pç → pçç
16
CRR
CORRECTIVE x → xx
17
EUP
EUPHEMISTIC xh → xxh
18
SKP
SKEPTICAL ks → kss
19
CYN
CYNICAL f → ff
20
CTP
CONTEMPTIVE kš → kšš
21
DSM
DISMISSIVE kf → kff
22
IDG
INDIGNATIVE pš → pšš
23
SGS
SUGGESTIVE ps → pss
24
PPV
PROPOSITIVE pf → pff


5.11.1.1
ASU
    ASSURATIVE

This bias indicates certainty or self-assurance on the part of the speaker, translatable by such phrases as ‘of course,’ ‘after all,’ or ‘needless to say.’ The intensive form adds a sort of self-righteousness quality conveyed by I told you so! or You see?!

 

5.11.1.2
HPB
    HYPERBOLIC

This bias imparts a sense of hyperbole and exaggeration, captured in such colloquial expressions as a prolonged ‘so’ or ‘totally’ as in I so don’t care! or That is totally not what I wanted. The intensive form adds a sense of “one-upmanship” as conveyed by the expression That’s nothing, wait till you hear this!


5.11.1.3
COI
    COINCIDENTAL

This bias conveys a sense of coincidence or happenstance as conveyed by the use of ‘happen’ in I happened to run into Jane or It just so happens that I’m busy. The intensive form adds a sense of serendipity, as conveyed by expressions such as ‘as luck would have it,’ ‘luckily’ or ‘fortunately.’


5.11.1.4
ACP
    ACCEPTIVE

This bias indicates a sense of general acceptance, as conveyed by the expression ‘it’s just as well that.’ The intensive form conveys resignation to fate, as expressed by phrases such as ‘like it or not’ or ‘…and there’s nothing to be done about it!’


5.11.1.5
RAC
    REACTIVE

This bias indicates surprise, as conveyed by phrases such as ‘my goodness!’ or ‘it’s surprising that.’ The intensive form raises this sense to the level of astonishment, as expressed by ‘Wow!’ or ‘Amazing!’


5.11.1.6
STU
    STUPEFACTIVE

This bias indicates a mild sense of wonder or reflection, as conveyed by the phrase ‘it’s a wonder that’ as in It’s a wonder he didn’t break a bone in that fall. The intensive raises this sense to one of awe, as conveyed by expressions such as ‘Well I’ll be!’ or ‘Who would’ve thought….’


5.11.1.7
CTV
    CONTEMPLATIVE

This bias expresses puzzlement, as conveyed by phrases such as ‘I wonder how…,’ ‘that’s odd…,’ ‘I don’t get it…,’ or a quizzical ‘hmmmm.’ The intensive form raises this sense to sudden bewilderment, as in ‘Huh? What do you mean…?’


5.11.1.8
DPV
    DESPERATIVE

This bias conveys a sense of dread or the conveyance of bad news, as expressed by ‘I don’t know how to say this, but…’ or ‘I’m afraid that….’ The intensive form raises this to the level of outright despair, as in ‘Oh, God…’ or ‘Oh, no!….’


5.11.1.9
RVL
    REVELATIVE

This bias expresses a sense of discovery, as conveyed by expressions such as ‘No wonder….’ or ‘So that’s why….’ The intensive form raises this to a sense of surprised revelation, as in ‘Aha!….’ or ‘Well, well, well!….’


5.11.1.10
GRT
    GRATIFICATIVE

This bias conveys a sense of pleasantness or mild pleasure, as conveyed by expressions such as ‘It’s pleasant to…’ or ‘I like to….’ The intensive raises this to a state of bliss or rapture, as in ‘Oh, there’s nothing like….’ or ‘(Sigh) What bliss it is to….’


5.11.1.11
SOL
    SOLICITIVE

This bias expresses the Ithkuil equivalent of English ‘please.’ In its intensive form, this transforms into an impatient demand, expressed in ‘C’mon!,’ ‘What’re you waiting for?’ or the phrase ‘so…already!’ as in the sentence So dance already!


5.11.1.12
SEL
    SELECTIVE

This bias conveys the idea of subjective interpretation, as seen in expressions such as ‘Look at it this way…,’ ‘As I see it,…,’ ‘Subjectively speaking,…,’ or ‘From one point of view,….’ In its intensive form, it conveys a narrow, singleminded interpretation, as conveyed by expressions such as ‘It can only mean one thing…,’ ‘and that’s that!’ ‘and that’s all there is to it!’ or ‘There’s no two ways about it,….’


5.11.1.13
IRO
    IRONIC

This bias conveys a sense of understatement, as conveyed in many subtle ways in English such as tone of voice or deliberately undramatic word choices. In its intensive form, this sense is raised to that of blatant irony, as when saying ‘Well! That was fun!’ after an unpleasant or harrowing experience.


5.11.1.14
EXA
    EXASPERATIVE

This bias conveys a sense of impatient exasperation, as conveyed by expressions such as ‘Look, don’t you get it?…’ or ‘Look, I’m trying to tell you….’ In its intensive form, this bias conveys a sense of outright mockery, as expressed by a mocking tone of voice in English, or by an deliberate, exasperated echolalia, i.e., the repeating of a person’s words back at them in contempt.


5.11.1.15
LTL
    LITERAL

This bias underscores a distinction between context and literalness, expressed by the English phrases ‘technically speaking’ or ‘Context aside for a moment,…’ as in Technically speaking, that’s not a polka (i.e., it’s a polka version of a non-polka song). In the intensive form, this bias conveys a sense of total literalness and exactitude, expressed in English by phrases such as ‘strictly speaking’ or ‘to put it in clinical terms….’ as in Strictly speaking, that’s not a polka (i.e., its rhythm is not that of a true polka).


5.11.1.16
CRR
    CORRECTIVE

This bias indicates a correction on the part of the speaker, as expressed in English by ‘that is to say…,’ ‘What I mean(t) to say is…’ or ‘I mean….’ The intensive form indicates a sense of subjective equivalence, as expressed in English by ‘in a manner of speaking,’ ‘so to speak,’ or ‘for all intents and purposes.’


5.11.1.17
EUP
    EUPHEMISTIC

This bias indicates a rephrasing or substitution of wording for means of clarification, as expressed in English by ‘in other words…’ or ‘to put it more exactly….’ The intensive form conveys a sense of outright euphemism, as expressed in English by phrases such as ‘Let’s just say that….’ or ‘Well, let me put it this way….’


5.11.1.18
SKP
    SKEPTICAL

This bias conveys a sense of skepticism, as expressed in English by ‘It’s (a little) hard to believe that….” The intensive form raises this sense to that of outright incredulity, as in a derisive ‘Oh, yeah! Suuuure!’ or a sneering ‘Yeah, right!’


5.11.1.19
CYN
    CYNICAL

This bias conveys a sense of incredulous unexpectedness or cynical surprise, as in “You mean to tell me…?’ or ‘You gotta be kidding me, ….’ The intensive form shifts this to outright sarcasm upon the discovery, as in ‘So! You just had to go and…’ or ‘Well, wouldn’t you know it, …’ or ‘Oh, nice!….’


5.11.1.20
CTP
    CONTEMPTIVE

This bias expresses simple disapproval, as conveyed by phrases such as “I don’t like the fact that…’ or ‘It bothers me that….’ The intensive form raises this to all-out contempt or disgust, as conveyed by ‘Shit!’ or ‘What nonsense!’ or ‘What bullshit!’


5.11.1.21
DSM
    DISMISSIVE

This bias conveys a sense of downplaying or lowering of expectations, as expressed in English by “sorry, but…’ or ‘It’s nothing. It’s just…” as in It’s just a small cut or Sorry, but it’s only the mailman. The intensive form expresses outright dismissal or insignificance, as conveyed by such expressions as ‘Is that it?’ ‘Big deal!’ or ‘So what!?’


5.11.1.22
IDG
    INDIGNATIVE

This bias conveys a sense of second-guessing, as expressed in English by ‘I’m sorry, what did you say?’ or ‘Say again? You want me to what?’ or ‘I beg your pardon?’ The intensive form shifts this sense to outright indignation, as conveyed by expressions such as ‘The nerve!’ or ‘How dare…!?”


5.11.1.23
SGS
    SUGGESTIVE

This bias conveys the sense of suggestiveness conveyed in English by such phrases as ‘what if…’ or ‘It could be that….’ The intensive form shifts this to a sense of a formal suggestion or proposition, as in ‘Consider this: …’ or ‘Posit the following: …’ or ‘Assume for the sake of argument that….’


5.11.1.24
PPV
    PROPOSITIVE
This bias expresses a proposal or suggested activity, as conveyed by English phrases such as ‘How about,’ ‘We could,’ or general suggestions, as in the sentences How about going for a stroll?, We could meet the clowns behind the barn if you want, or You can sit on my lap. The intensive form turns this into an ultimatum, as conveyed in English by phrases such as ‘take it or leave it,’ ‘this is your last chance,’ or ‘it’s now or never.’


5.11.2 Examples of Bias in Use


Isvala’kss  êzguirs  èkšôt  âmmit.
         LISTEN 
DYN-‘fear’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-EXS-IFL-SKP+    STA-‘sound.of.laughter’-DER-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/AGG-IFL  STA-‘clown’-ATT-NRM/DEL/U/CSL/UNI-FML    STA-‘child’-AFF-NRM/DEL/U/CSL/UNI-IFL
You can hardly expect us to believe that the sound of the clowns’ laughter frightens the children.


Uzlasa’nn  gvarl  âpcââl.
STA-‘inside-out’-PRX/M/CSL/UNI-EXS-IFL-ASU+    ‘article.of.clothing’-OBL-DEL/M/ASO/AGG    STA-‘wife’-POS-DEL/M/CSL/UNI-FML
You see?! I told you his wife’s clothes are inside-out!

 


Hwe’maklasá’ň.   (OR   Hweklasürná’ň.)

INF-STA-ASR/FRG/PPS-‘rain’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/UNI-FML-COI
It may just so happen to be raining.

 


Proceed to Chapter 6: More Verb Morphology >>

 

 

   

 

 

   
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