Ithkuil: A Philosophical Design for a Hypothetical Language

   

 

 

   
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Chapter 6: More Verb Morphology

  6.1 Modality 6.3 Alternate Representation of Formative Categories
  6.2 Level 6.4 Incorporation and Format


In this chapter, we examine two additional morphological categories — Modality and Level — as well as the morpho-syntactic process called Incorporation and its associated morphological category Format. Modality and Level are shown via a word separate from the formative itself, the verbal adjunct. The concept of adjuncts was previously discussed in Section 2.4 and 2.4.2. A verbal adjunct is placed either immediately preceding or immediately following a verbal formative, and provides additional morphological information about the formative.

Note that, in addition to conveying Modality and Level, the verbal adjunct also has slots for conveying certain categories usually conveyed by the formative, specifically Valence, Phase, Sanction, Illocution, Aspect, Mood, Bias, and Extension. Therefore, a verbal adjunct can be used to convey these other categories in order to decrease the number of syllables of the formative and facilitate pronunciation/euphony of the sentence as whole. This is discussed in Section 6.3.

The structure of a verbal adjunct is as follows. Those slots which are exclusive to verbal adjuncts (i.e., not also found in the formative) are Slots B and D:

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
(((CL)
Ve)
Cv)
Vm)
Cs
(Vs
(Cb))
[tone]

 Valence

Level

Phase +
Saction +
Illocution

Modality


Aspect

Aspect


Bias


Extension


The Cs aspectual infix in Slot E is mandatory, even if it carries a null value (i.e., no aspect). The Cs consonantal affix will always contain one of the specialized dyssyllabic geminate clusters described in Section 1.2.1.3, written n-n, m-m, l-l, r-r, etc. as well as various other syllabic consonant clusters, e.g., l-m, l-n, r-m, r-n, and r-ň. The second member of the dyssyllabic consonant cluster always carries the word stress and tone in a verbal adjunct. It is the appearance of such a dyssyllabic geminate cluster as the last, or second-to-last consonantal form in the word that identifies the word to readers/listeners as a verbal adjunct.

The default tone of a verbal adjunct is falling. However, variations in the tone of a verbal adjunct can be used to convey the accompanying formative’s Extension category, in order to simplify the phonetic structure of the Formative's Ca affix (see Chapter 3) for purposes of euphony and ease of pronunciation. This is discussed in Section 6.3.5 below.


For an example of a verbal adjunct, the example verb at the beginning of Chapter 5 (Section 5.0) is repeated here:

hruštrul-lyö’ň ˉhničhâçtàu’watkwöu

The first word of this two-word phrase is the adjunct, analyzable as follows:

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
hr
u
štr
u
l-ly
ö
’ň
[falling tone]

 DEMONSTRATIVE valence


SURPASSIVE-RELATIVE level


RECURRENT phase
REFUTATIVE sanction
DIRECTIVE illocution

DESIDERATIVE modality

REGRESSIVE aspect

IMMINENT aspect

COINCIDENTAL
bias

[default EXTENSION]

 


6.1 MODALITY

Modality corresponds roughly to the function of both modal verbs in Western languages (e.g., can, may, must, should, etc.) as well as those verbs which modify a following verb such as to want to, to choose to, to need to, to offer to, to demand that, etc. However, in Ithkuil, the effect of such modifications on a verb causes a fundamental change in the cognitive interpretation of the verb, usually resulting in a modification of both the Essence (see Sec. 3.5) and the Perspective (see Sec. 3.3) of the verb, as well as invoking the use of the ACTIVATIVE case to mark the “subject” noun (see Sec. 4.3.9). The nature of these modifications is explained as follows: As we saw in Sections 3.5 and 4.3.9, it is possible in human language to speak about events that are either unreal, as-yet-unrealized, or alternative versions of reality. Specifically, nouns and verbs can make reference to hypothetical representations of real-world counterparts from within an “alternative mental space” created psychologically (and implied linguistically). This alternative mental space is essentially the psychological realm of potential and imagination. It is seen, for example, in the following sentences.

1) You must come home at once.
2) That girl can sing better than anybody.
3) Our troops should attack at dawn.
4) Mother needs you to come with her.
5) The teacher requests that I dance for you.
6) The man believes clowns are dangerous.

Each of the above sentences describe potential or unreal events, not actual real-world happenings that are occurring or have occurred. In Sentence (1) no one has yet come home, in Sentence (2) the girl may choose never to sing again, Sentence (3) does not tell us whether any attack will actually occur, Sentence (4) does not indicate whether you will come or not, Sentence (5) does not indicate whether I will dance, nor does Sentence (6) establish whether or not clowns are, in fact, dangerous.Because the clauses following the verbs must, can, should, need, request, believe, in the above sentences all refer to unrealized, imagined, or hypothetical events, the nouns and verbs within those clauses would be marked in the ABSTRACT perspective (see Sec. 3.3) and the REPRESENTATIVE essence (see Sec. 3.5). The “subject” nouns which invoke the event (the nouns you, girl, troops, mother, teacher, and man in the six sentences above) would be marked in the ACTIVATIVE case (see Sec. 4.3.9). It should be noted that not all Ithkuil modalities necessarily invoke hypothetical or unrealized events. For example, in the sentence She chose to move to Australia, the verb chose signals that the following clause is spoken of abstractly (i.e., it is the act of choice that is being talked about, not the move itself), but nevertheless refers to an actual event (i.e., she did, in fact, move to Australia). Thus, the move to Australia clause would be marked in the ABSTRACT perspective but would not be marked in the REPRESENTATIVE essence. Thus, the requirement that an Ithkuil modality construction invoke modifications in the perspective, essence and case of the associated nouns and verbs is entirely dependent on the semantics and cognitive intent of the utterance.

There are 30 modalities in Ithkuil. Modality is marked by the Vm vocalic affix in Slot D of a verbal adjunct.

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
(((CL)
Ve)
Cv)
Vm)
Cs
(Vs
(Cb))

 Valence

Level

Phase +
Sactions +
Illocutions

Modality


Aspect

Aspect

Bias


The 30 modalities and their respective Vm affixes are shown in Table 16 below. The function of each modality is described in the sub-sections following the table.


Table 16: Vm Modality Affixes 

 
1Label
Name
Vm-affix
   
Label
Name
Vm-affix
 
--
(no modality)
a
15
ITV
Intentive
iu
1
DES
Desiderative
u
16
ANT
Anticipative
au
2
ASP
Aspirative
e
17
DSP
Dispositive
eu
3
EPC
Expectative
o
18
PRE
Preparative
ou
4
CRD
Credential
i
19
NEC
Necessitative
ae
5
REQ
Requisitive
ö
20
DCV
Decisive
ia / ua
6
EXH
Exhortative
î / û
21
PTV
Proclivitive
ie / ue
7
OPR
Opportunitive
â
22
VOL
Voluntative
io / uo
8
CPC
Capacitative
ê
23
ACC
Accordative
iö / uö
9
PRM
Permissive
ô
24
ICL
Inclinative
ea
10
PTN
Potential
ü / oe
25
CML
Compulsive
oa
11
CLS
Compulsory
ai
26
DVR
Divertive
öi / ië
12
OBG
Obligative
ei
27
DVT
Devotive
öu / uë
13
IMS
Impositive
ui
28
PFT
Preferential
eo
14
ADV
Advocative
oi
29
IPS
Impressional
ëi
30
PMS
Promissory
ëu

 

6.1.1
DES
The Desiderative

The DESIDERATIVE more or less corresponds to English constructions expressing desire, e.g., to want to, to desire that, etc. as in The teacher wants the students to study hard.


6.1.2
ASP
The Aspirative

The ASPIRATIVE corresponds to English constructions expressing wishing or hoping, e.g., to wish that, to hope that, etc.

 

6.1.3
EPC
The Expectative

The EXPECTATIVE corresponds to English constructions expressing expectation, as in He expected her to be beautiful, or I imagine he’s reached his destination.

 

6.1.4
CRD
The Credential

The CREDENTIAL corresponds to English constructions expressing belief, as in I think she has two sons, or We believe the earth to be round. Note that it does not correspond to English expressions of opinion, i.e., it would not be used in translating sentences such as I think she’s pretty.

 

6.1.5
REQ
The Requisitive

The REQUISITIVE corresponds to English constructions expressing requests, as in I request his presence at the banquet, or I’d like you to visit your father.

 

6.1.6
EXH
The Exhortative

The EXHORTATIVE corresponds to English expressions of exhortation or demand, as in I demand you return my book or Let the gates be opened!

 

6.1.7
OPR
The Opportunitive

The OPPORTUNITIVE corresponds to the English modal verb can/could/be able where it means ‘have the opportunity to,’ as in Can we pass by our old house when we visit town? or Because of the delay, she was able to go to the museum after all.

 

6.1.8
CPC
The Capacitative

The CAPACITATIVE corresponds to the English modal verb can/could/be able where it means ‘have the ability or capacity to,’ as in Can she sing opera? or He could run like the wind. Note that it would also be used when translating English generic statements implying ability or capacity as in He speaks French like a native [i.e., the sentence does not imply he is speaking French at the moment, but rather his general ability to do so].

 

6.1.9
PRM
The Permissive

The PERMISSIVE corresponds to the English modal verbs can/could/be able or may/might where they mean ‘be permitted to,’ as in Very well, you can have ice cream for dessert; or Could I talk to you?

 

6.1.10
PTN
The Potential

The POTENTIAL corresponds to the English modal verb can/could/be able where it means ‘have the potential to or the possibility of,’ as in Remember it can flood suddenly in this area, or That man could fly into rages for no reason. It is also used when translating generic statements implying potential or possibility, as in It rains unpredictably in the Northwest.

 

6.1.11
CLS
The Compulsory

The COMPULSORY corresponds to the English modal verbs must or have to/had to in their meaning of compulsory obligation, as in You must get up now, or I had to attend the ceremony.

 

6.1.12
OBG
The Obligative

The OBLIGATIVE corresponds to the English modal verbs should, ought to, or other phrases expressing optional but preferential obligation, as in You ought to see a dentist, I should tell her how I feel, or It would be best if the children stayed away from clowns.

 

6.1.13
IMS
The Impositive

The IMPOSITIVE corresponds to English expressions such as be supposed to, be expected to, or be to which impose an expectation upon a party, as in You’re supposed to smile when introduced, or He is to give a speech at the banquet.

 

6.1.14
ADV
The Advocative

The ADVOCATIVE corresponds to English expressions such as suggest that or propose that which advocate a position, as in I suggest you study harder or They proposed that the clowns take their circus tent elsewhere.

 

6.1.15
ITV
The Intentive

The INTENTIVE corresponds to English expressions such as intend to, plan on or shall which convey an intention, as in The girls plan on travelling to Europe, or I shall see to it.

 

6.1.16
ANT
The Anticipative

The ANTICIPATIVE corresponds to English expressions such as to look forward to or to eagerly await which convey positive anticipation, as in We look forward to the clowns coming to town.

 

6.1.17
DSP
The Dispositive

The DISPOSITIVE corresponds to the English expression to be willing to, conveying willingness as in He is willing to give his life to defeat the clowns.

 

6.1.18
PRE
The Preparative

The PREPARATIVE corresponds to the English expressions be ready to or be prepared to, indicating readiness, as in She’s ready to host the party, or They are prepared to endure harsh weather.

 

6.1.19
NEC
The Necessitative

The NECESSITATIVE corresponds to the English expressions need to or be necessary to, indicating necessity, as in You need to do something about those clowns in the yard, or It was necessary to inform her about the atrocities.

 

6.1.20
DCV
The Decisive

The DECISIVE corresponds to English expressions such as decide to or choose to, indicating choice, as in Peter decided to cook breakfast or Colleen chose to visit the clowns.

 

6.1.21
PTV
The Proclivitive

The PROCLIVITIVE corresponds to English expressions such as tend to, be apt to, or be prone to, indicating tendency, as in The wolverine tended to eat platypus eggs, or Boris is apt to make a fool of himself when meeting women.

 

6.1.22
VOL
The Voluntative

The VOLUNTATIVE corresponds to English expressions such as offer to or volunteer to, indicating an act of offering as in The foreman offered to put poison in my beer, or Mrs. Blathermot volunteered to bake artichoke pie for the Open House event.

 

6.1.23
ACC
The Accordative

The ACCORDATIVE corresponds to the English expression agree to, as in Constance agreed to perform her go-go number at the talent show.

 

6.1.24
ICL
The Inclinative

The INCLINATIVE corresponds to English expressions such as to feel like or be up for, indicating an impulsive desire, as in He’s up for going to the shindig, or Molly felt like eating the entire chocolate cake.

 

6.1.25
CML
The Compulsive

The COMPULSIVE corresponds to English expressions such as feel driven to or feel a need to, indicating compulsion, as in Jack feels driven to hunt wolverines, or My hairdresser feels a need to date bikers. It is marked by addition of the suffix - to a conflational or valence adjunct.

 

6.1.26
DVR
The Divertive

The DIVERTIVE corresponds to English expressions such as like to, or enjoy, conveying simple likes and pasttimes as in Boys like to dream about cars, or My salamander enjoyed biting people on their rump.

 

6.1.27
DVT
The Devotive

The DEVOTIVE corresponds to English expressions such as be devoted to or be committed to, indicating devotion as in Charlotte is committed to being the best seamstress in town, or They were devoted to rooting for the losing team.

 

6.1.28
PFT
The Preferential

The PREFERENTIAL corresponds to English expressions such as prefer, or would rather that, indicating preference as in He’d rather work by himself, or Muldane prefers that his cats eat live food.

 

6.1.29
IPS
The Impressional

The IMPRESSIONAL corresponds to English expressions such as have an impression that, have a hunch that, or feel that, indicating a subjective belief or impression as in I’ve a hunch that the porter is an alcoholic, or Betty feels her husband flirts too much with the secretarial pool.

 

6.1.30
PMS
The Promissory

The PROMISSORY corresponds to English expressions such as promise, or swear that, indicating a self-imposed obligation as in She promised that her son would visit my daughter, or Hargreaves swears that the fish from that lake are sentient.

 

6.1.31 Examples of Modality in Use


Wëtöin-n  ailtac  qeiwi.

RCP-PPS/CTX/ASR-DVR-FAC     DYN-‘write.message’-NRM/DEL/A/CSL/UNI-IFL   ma-ACT-CSL-NRM/DPX
The two of them like writing to each other.

 


Hëtiun-n  ivogwařļokkai  ţei.

PRL-ITV-FAC    DYN-[inc.stem: ‘recreation.leisure’]-‘ambulate’-NRM-DEL/M/CSL/CPN-TPP1/7-ISR   1+ma-ACT
She and I are planning on taking a walk later on.

 


On-n  amnadya  osmuil.

EPC-FAC    STA-‘awe’-RPV/PRX/A/CSL/UNI-IFL    IFL-‘valley’-DER-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI
The valley is expected to be awe-inspiring.

 


Ur-rwu  ivadya  âbyeil.

DES-FAC/RSM-RTR    DYN-‘play’-RPV/PRX/A/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘dog’-ACT-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
The dog wanted to play some more.

 

 


6.2 LEVEL

Level corresponds roughly to what is known as degree of comparison in other languages. Many languages morphologically indicate degrees of comparison as exemplified by the English suffixes -er and -est seen in great-greater-greatest, or alternately with the adverbs more and most, as well as their negative counterparts less and least. The Ithkuil comparison schema is much more complex than those found in natural languages and is designed to eliminate various ambiguities that arise from those simpler schemata, as discussed below.


6.2.1 Ambiguity and Under-specification in Natural Languages

The comparison schemata of natural languages tend to grossly under-specify the exact semantic nature of the comparison. A clear case of such under-specification can be seen in an English example sentence such as Jane is healthier. This sentence can mean any of the following:

(a) Jane's state of health has improved, although she is still unwell.
(b) Jane's state of health has improved so that now she is well (whereas before she was unwell).
(c) Jane's state of health is even better than it previously was (i.e., she was healthy before, but is even healthier now).
(d) Jane's state of health is not as poor as someone else's state of health (although neither Jane nor the other person are well).
(e) Jane's state of health is better than someone else's state of health, so that Jane can be considered healthy while the other is unwell.
(f) Jane's state of health is better than someone else's state of health, even though both can be considered healthy.


This ambiguity is not alleviated even when we specify a party to which Jane's health is being compared as in Jane is healthier than Sue, which can mean:

(a) Jane's state of health is not as poor as Sue's although both are unwell.
(b) Jane's state of health is better than Sue's, so that Jane can be considered well while Sue is unwell.
(c) Both Jane and Sue are healthy, but Jane's state of health is even better than Sue's.
(d) Jane's state of health is not as poor as Sue's (although neither Jane nor the other person are well).


This sort of ambiguity allows odd-sounding sentences such as Snow is warmer (e.g., than liquid nitrogen) to be perfectly grammatical. What is important to note about the above analysis is that the words healthier or warmer do not indicate in the actual context of usage whether a person is actually healthy or whether snow is actually warm. Rather English -er and -est (and more and most) as well as their negative counterparts (less and least) merely serve to indicate on a relative scale a relationship between two entities being compared (or where only one party is mentioned, in relationship to some unspecified standard or expectation). Additional statements are needed to clarify the actual context to determine where the entities fall on the quantitative "spectrum" or range of the particular quality or attribute pair in question, e.g., unhealthy <—> healthy.

The comparison scheme of Ithkuil has been designed to inherently specify such relative comparison while simultaneously specifying placement within the qualitative spectrum, so that ambiguity as to whether “healthier” means the person is well or unwell is eliminated.

 

6.2.2 Relative Versus Absolute Comparison

An additional aspect of Ithkuil comparison is the concept of relative comparison versus absolute comparison. This is an important concept which impacts the truth value of a statement based upon context. Specifically, relative comparison allows for statements to be true within the narrow confines of the context-at-hand, whereas absolute comparison allows for statements to be true without reference to any specific context. This can be illustrated by the following examples.

(a) Sirius is the brightest star in the night sky.
(b) That highway is the fastest way into town.


Both of these sentences are true in certain pragmatic contexts and not true in others. For example, while Sirius is the most luminous star as seen from Earth, this is merely due to its relative nearness to Earth (8.4 light years) as compared to most other stars. There are thousands of known stars which are larger (and inherently more luminous) than Sirius but are much further away from Earth. So Sentence (a) is true in a relative context but false in an absolute context. Similarly the highway in Sentence (b) may be the fastest way in most conditions, but if there is a traffic jam or an accident blocking the highway, or if one has access to a private helicopter, then the statement would be false. Therefore, it is only true in a narrow context determined by the pragmatics of the moment it is spoken. Ithkuil allows speakers to specify whether a comparison is to be interpreted within the context-at-hand (relative comparison) or as an absolute statement irrespective of the context-at-hand.

 


6.2.3 Comparison Operators (Levels)

There are nine comparison operators for the Ithkuil verb, called Levels, which specify the comparative relationship involved, e.g., same as, more than, less than, etc. These levels are marked by a word-initial vocalic prefix to the verb, Ve. Each prefix comes in two varieties, to distinguish between relative versus absolute comparison. Additionally there is an unmarked default zero-level in which no comparison is being made). The presence of a Ve prefix in Slot B of the verbal adjunct requires Slots C And D to be filled by their respective affixes as well.

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
(((CL)
Ve)
Cv)
Vm)
Cs
(Vs
(Cb))
[tone]

 Valence

Level

Phase +
Sanction +
Illocution

Modality


Aspect

Aspect


Bias


Extension


NOTE: As an alternative to using Ve, Level can also be conveyed by the suffixes -V1 and -V2 added to the formative (placed in Slot XI), explained in Section 7.4.13 - LVL suffix.

 

In interpreting the meaning of the various Levels, the terms used in the formulas refer to the following X-M-(Y) model, where M represents a verb or an adjectival description, X is the "subject" of the verb, and Y is the standard being compared to.

Sue
dances as well as /
dances better than /
dances worse than
etc.

Mary
OR
Sue
is as smart
is smarter than
is less smart than
etc.
Mary
X
M
(Y)
X
M
(Y)

Note that the meaning of each Level allows for an interpretation in which there is no Y term so that the standard of comparison is a previous state of X, e.g., the difference between Sue dances better than Mary versus Sue dances better than before.

 


Table 17: Ve Level prefixes

   
VL Prefix
Meaning
Label Name of Level
RELATIVE
ABSOLUTE
 
EQU EQUATIVE
a-
â-
X M ’s the same as Y ( or as before) / X is as M as Y ( or as before)
SUR SURPASSIVE
u-
û / î-
X M ’s more than Y ( or than before) / X is more M than Y ( or than before)
DFC DEFICIENT
i-
ö-
X M ’s less than Y ( or than before) / X is less M than Y ( or than before)
OPT OPTIMAL
o-
ô-
X M ’s at its most possible / X is at its most M possible
MIN MINIMAL
e-
ê-
X M ’s at its least possible / X is at its least M possible
SPL SUPERLATIVE
ai-
au-
X M ’s at its most yet / X is at its most M yet
IFR INFERIOR
ui-
iu-
X M ’s at its least yet / X is at its least M yet
SPQ SUPEREQUATIVE
ei-
eu-
X M ’s more than or = to Y ( or than or equal to before) / X is more M than or = to Y / before
SBE SUBEQUATIVE
oi-
ou-
X M ’s less than or = to Y ( or than or equal to before) / X is less M than or = to Y / before

Note that in verbal adjuncts where Valence is marked by a word-initial CL consonantal prefix in Slot A (see Sec. 6.3.4), but there is no Level, the neutral value of Ve in Slot B is ë.

 

6.2.4 The Comparison Cases

In addition to Level, there are 24 specialized noun cases which identify the exact nature of the comparison in relation to the quantitative spectrum, range, or standard for the particular attribute, quality, or act in question. These cases are applied to the noun to which something is compared, i.e., the term Y in the above formulas. So, for example, in the Ithkuil translation of the sentence Jane is healthier than her sister, the equivalent to is healthier would be shown by a Level prefix meaning "more than" applied to a formative meaning "manifesting a state of health," while the phrase corresponding to than her sister would be the word sister marked for a case which specifies whether the other noun to which the sister is being compared (i.e., Jane) is now well, or is nevertheless still unhealthy, etc.

It is primarily through the use of these specialized comparison cases that the ambiguities discussed above in Sec. 6.2.1 are eliminated. The meaning of each case as applied to Y, in terms of the X-M-Y formula discussed above, would be:

"in comparison to Y, where X Q in terms of reference standard S"

where Q indicates the change (or lack thereof) in X over time and S indicates an external standard of comparison for M. An example of this formula in use would be where the term Q = "was previously less M than Y" and S = "although X (still) isn't very M compared to some external standard or expectation of M-ness" applied to the sentence Jane is healthier than Sue, now disambiguated to mean that Jane, while being in a healthier stated than Sue, still isn't very healthy.

There are eight possible values for Q and three possible values for S, rendering a total of 24 possible Q + S combinations. It is these 24 possible Q + S combinations that are rendered as the Comparison cases in Ithkuil. The eight possible values for Q are as follows:

1
was previously less M (or M ’d less) than Y
2
was previously more M (or M ’d more) than Y
3
is still less M (or M ’s less) than Y
4
is still more M (or M ’s more) than Y
5
is now less M (or M ’s less) than Y
6
is now more M (or M ’s more) than Y
7
was previously as M (or M ’d as much) as Y
8
where X ’s previous state of M-ness (or level of M-ing) relative to Y is unknown, inapplicable or irrelevant

The three possible values for S are as follows:

A
although X (still) isn’t very M compared to some external standard or expectation of M-ness
B
where X meets/exceeds some some external standard or expectation of M-ness and Y does not
C
where both X and Y meet/exceed some external standard or expectation of M-ness, where previously only Y met/exceeded it

The eight values of Q combine with the three values of S to give the specific meanings of the 24 comparison cases as shown below in Table 18. As with the 72 primary cases (see Chapter 4) the 24 comparison cases are shown by the Vc infix to the formative in Slot VIII.


Table 18: The 24 Comparison Cases (as per the formula: [X] [M] [in comparison to Y] where X Q in terms of reference standard S)

Mutation Series
Label
Name of Case
Vc
Value of Q
(change in X over time)
Value of S
(Comparison to external standard)
73
CMP1A
COMPARATIVE 1A
where X was previously less M (or M ’d less) than Y although X (or X and Y) (still) isn’t/aren't very M compared to some external standard or expectation of M-ness
74
CMP2A
COMPARATIVE 2A
where X was previously more M (or M ’d more) than Y
75
CMP3A
COMPARATIVE 3A
where X is still less M (or M ’s less) than Y
76
CMP4A
COMPARATIVE 4A
where X is still more M (or M ’s more) than Y
77
CMP5A
COMPARATIVE 5A
where X is now less M (or M ’s less) than Y
78
CMP6A
COMPARATIVE 6A
where X is now more M (or M ’s more) than Y
79
CMP7A
COMPARATIVE 7A
where X was previously as M (or M ’d as much) as Y
80
CMP8A
COMPARATIVE 8A
where X ’s previous state of M-ness (or level of M-ing) relative to Y is unknown, inapplicable or irrelevant
81
CMP1B
COMPARATIVE 1B
ao
where X was previously less M (or M ’d less) than Y and where X (or Y) meets/exceeds some some extrenal standard or expectation of M-ness and Y (or X) does not
82
CMP2B
COMPARATIVE 2B
where X was previously more M (or M ’d more) than Y
83
CMP3B
COMPARATIVE 3B
where X is still less M (or M ’s less) than Y
84
CMP4B
COMPARATIVE 4B
where X is still more M (or M ’s more) than Y
85
CMP5B
COMPARATIVE 5B
ëì
where X is now less M (or M ’s less) than Y
86
CMP6B
COMPARATIVE 6B
öì
where X is now more M (or M ’s more) than Y
87
CMP7B
COMPARATIVE 7B
ëù
where X was previously as M (or M ’d as much) as Y
88
CMP8B
COMPARATIVE 8B
öù
where X ’s previous state of M-ness (or level of M-ing) relative to Y is unknown, inapplicable or irrelevant
89
CMP1C
COMPARATIVE 1C
eai
where X was previously less M (or M ’d less) than Y and where both X and Y meet/exceed some external standard or expectation of M-ness, where previously only Y met/exceeded it
90
CMP2C
COMPARATIVE 2C
oai
where X was previously more M (or M ’d more) than Y
91
CMP3C
COMPARATIVE 3C
eau
where X is still less M (or M ’s less) than Y
92
CMP4C
COMPARATIVE 4C
oau
where X is still more M (or M ’s more) than Y
93
CMP5C
COMPARATIVE 5C
uai / iau
where X is now less M (or M ’s less) than Y
94
CMP6C
COMPARATIVE 6C
uei / ieu
where X is now more M (or M ’s more) than Y
95
CMP7C
COMPARATIVE 7C
uoi / iou
where X was previously as M (or M ’d as much) as Y
96
CMP8C
COMPARATIVE 8C
uëi / iëu
where X ’s previous state of M-ness (or level of M-ing) relative to Y is unknown, inapplicable or irrelevant

 

6.2.5 The COS Suffix

Since Level affixes modify a verb directly, there is still a potential for ambiguity due to the fact that Levels and the Comparison cases specify the relationship between two entities being compared, but they do not specify the particular parameter of the term M. In other words, the verb "laugh" in the SURPASSIVE Level might be best translated as "out-laugh," as in Sam out-laughed George, but we still do not know if this means the laugh was louder, longer, or "harder." Therefore, verbs marked for Levels often take the COS suffix as well, to specify the parameters of the quality or act in question. This suffix is found in the list of derivational suffixes in Chapter 7, but is shown here as well, for the sake of convenience. (See Chapter 7 for an explanation of the nine degrees and three suffix-types associated with derivational suffixes).

-Vx ks  COS  Comparison Specifications

  1. “more”/“less” = extent/amount/volume
  2. “harder”/“weaker” = degree of intensity or effort
  3. “longer”/“shorter” = duration; time spent being/doing
  4. “better”/“worse” = quality / style
  5. “more efficiently”/“less efficiently” = efficiency / effort relative to outcome
  6. “greater”/“poorer” = relevant outcome / bottom-line result
  7. combo of 4, 5, and 6
  8. combo of 1, 2, and 3
  9. combo of 1 through 6


6.2.6 Examples of Level and the Comparison Cases in Use

(Note that in the morphological interlinear analysis below, the distinction between absolute versus relative Level is indicated by a small “a” versus a small “r” attached to the label/abbreviation for the particular Level.)



Ulan-n  oxassûg  êqil  ôqoìl.
         LISTEN 
SURr-ASR/CTX/IPU-FAC    STA-‘have.eyesight’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/DPX-FLS1/6-IFL    STA-‘woman’-AFF-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL    STA-‘man’-CMP3A-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
It is clear the woman’s eyesight has improved, but she still doesn’t see as well as the man, who doesn't see very well either.

 


Rril  eglalaimļ  byoail.
         LISTEN 
STA-‘cat’-AFF-NRMDEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL   STA-‘sickness/illness’-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-SPQa-IFL    STA-‘dog’-CMP2C-NRM/DEL/M/CSL/UNI-IFL
The cat is now at least as sick as the dog, if not more so, whereas previously only the dog was sick.

 

6.3 ALTERNATE REPRESENTATION OF FORMATIVE CATEGORIES

In Chapter 5 we discussed the verbal categories of Mood, Aspect, Bias, Phase, Sanction, Illocution, and Valence, and showed how each of these categories is manifested by various affixes within the structure of a formative. However, the structure of the verbal adjunct, discussed at the beginning of this chapter, allows for each of the aforementioned morphological categories to alternately be displayed via a verbal adjunct rather than a formative. This is often desirable for purposes of phonological euphony or to address the limitations of phonotactic constraints (see Section 1.4). The sub-sections below discuss the specifics on the alternate representations of these categories via a verbal adjunct.

 

6.3.1 Alternate Representation of Mood and/or Aspect

The categories of Mood and Aspect were previously discussed in Section 5.2 and Section 5.10 respectively. Mood is normally shown (along with Illocution) via the Ci+Vi infix to a formative in Slot IX, although it can alternately be shown along with Aspect via the Cs affix to a formative in Slot III. However, the use of the Cs affix in Slot III of a formative, unless required by the presence of affixes in Slots I or II, is generally undesirable as its presence adds two syllables to the length of the formative. Therefore, as an alternative, Aspect and/or Mood can be conveyed by the same Cs affix within a verbal adjunct in Slot E. This Cs affix is mandatory for all verbal adjunct.

The second syllable of the Cs affix (i.e., the second member of one of the dyssyllabic consonant clusters l-l, m-m, n-n, ň-ň, r-r, l-m, l-n, r-m, r-n, and r-ň) always receives the syllabic stress and tone in a verbal adjunct.


A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
(((CL)
Ve)
Cv)
Vm)
Cs
(Vs
(Cb))
[tone]

 Valence

Level

Phase +
Saction +
Illocution

Modality


Aspect

Aspect


Bias


Extension


A second verbal aspect can be shown within a verbal adjunct utilizing the Vs affix in Slot F. Each of the 32 aspects, in addition to their consonantal Cs form, has a vocalic affixual form Vs, shown in the table below.


Table 19: Values for Vs Aspectual Markers and Cs Aspect+Mood Markers

   
MOOD
     

FAC

SUB

ASM

SPC

COU

HYP

IPL

ASC

Aspect

 
Vs
               

 

(none)

 

a

n-n

m-m

l-l

r-r

ň-ň

r-n

l-ň

r-ň

1

RTR
RETROSPECTIVE

u

n-nr

n-nt

n-nt’

n-nd

n-nth

n-nţ

n-ndh

n-nh

2

PRS
PROSPECTIVE

e

m-mr

m-mp

m-mp’

m-mb

m-mph

m-mf

m-mv

m-mh

3

HAB
HABITUAL

o

l-lr

l-lt

l-lt’

l-ld

l-lth

l-lţ

l-ldh

l-lh

4

PRG
PROGRESSIVE

i

r-rn

r-rt

r-rt’

r-rd

r-rth

r-rţ

r-rdh

r-rh

5

IMM
IMMINENT

ö

ň-ňr

ň-ňk

ň-ňk’

ň-ňg

ň-ňkh

ň-ňx

ň-ňq

ň-ňh

6

PCS
PRECESSIVE

î/û

n-nw

n-ntw

n-nt’w

n-ndw

n-nthw

n-nţw

n-ndhw

n-nhw

7

REG
REGULATIVE

â

m-mw

m-mpw

m-mp’w

m-mbw

m-mphw

m-mfw

m-mvw

m-mhw

8

EXP
EXPERIENTIAL

ê

l-lw

l-ltw

l-lt’w

l-ldw

l-lthw

l-lţw

l-lđw

l-lhw

9

RSM
RESUMPTIVE

ô

r-rw

r-rtw

r-rt’w

r-rdw

r-rthw

r-rţw

r-rdhw

r-rhw

10

CSS
CESSATIVE

ü/oe

ň-ňw

ň-ňkw

ň-ňk’w

ň-ňgw

ň-ňkhw

ň-ňxw

ň-ňqw

ň-ňhw

11

RCS
RECESSATIVE

ai

n-ny

n-nty

n-nt’y

n-ndy

n-nthy

n-nţy

n-ndhy

n-nç

12

PAU
PAUSAL

ei

m-my

m-mpy

m-mp’y

m-mby

m-mphy

m-mfy

m-mvy

m-mç

13

RGR
REGRESSIVE

ui

l-ly

l-lty

l-lt’y

l-ldy

l-lthy

l-lţy

l-ldhy

l-lç

14

PCL
PRECLUSIVE

oi

r-ry

r-rty

r-rt’y

r-rdy

r-rthy

r-rţy

r-rdhy

r-rç

15

CNT
CONTINUATIVE

iu

n-ns

n-nz

n-nsw

n-nzw

n-nc’

n-nch

n-nc’w

n-nchw

16

ICS
INCESSATIVE

au

m-ms

m-mz

m-msw

m-mzw

m-mc’

m-mch

m-mc’w

m-mchw

17
PMP
PREEMPTIVE

eu

ň-ňs

ň-ňz

ň-ňsw

ň-ňzw

ň-ňc’

ň-ňch

ň-ňc’w

ň-ňchw

18
CLM
CLIMACTIC

ou

l-ls

l-lz

l-lsw

l-lzw

l-lc’

l-lch

l-lc’w

l-lch’w

19
PTC
PROTRACTIVE

ae

r-rs

r-rz

r-rsw

r-rzw

r-rc’

r-rch

r-rc’w

r-rchw

20
TMP
TEMPORARY

ia/ua

n-nš

n-nž

n-nšw

n-nžw

n-nč’

n-nčh

n-nč’w

n-nčhw

21
MTV
MOTIVE

ie/ue

m-mš

m-mž

m-mšw

m-mžw

m-mč’

m-mčh

m-mč’w

m-mčhw

22
CSQ
CONSEQUENTIAL

io/uo

ň-ňš

ň-ňž

ň-ňšw

ň-ňžw

ň-ňč’

ň-ňčh

ň-ňč’w

ň-ňčhw

23
SQN
SEQUENTIAL

iù /uì

l-lš

l-lž

l-lšw

l-lžw

l-lč’

l-lčh

l-lč’w

l-lčhw

24
EPD
EXPEDITIVE

iö/uö

r-rš

r-rž

r-ršw

r-ržw

r-rč’

r-rčh

r-rč’w

r-rčhw

25
DCL
DISCLUSIVE

ea

n-nļ

m-mļ

ň-ňļ

n-ntļ

m-mtļ

ň-ňtļ

l-ltļ

r-rtļ

26
CCL
CONCLUSIVE

oa

l-lm

l-lļ

n-nl

ň-ňm

m-mř

m-mt

ň-ňt

ň-ňn

27
CUL
CULMINATIVE

r-rm

r-rl

m-ml

m-mn

r-mř

m-mt’

ň-ňt’

ň-ňç

28
IMD
INTERMEDIATIVE

öi/öa

l-ln

l-nļ

l-lř

n-nm

ň-ňř

m-mth

ň-ňth

ň-ňţ

29
TRD
TARDATIVE

öu/öe

l-nw

l-ny

l-lg

l-lgw

l-lx

l-lxw

l-lv

l-lcw

30
TNS
TRANSITIONAL

eo

r-nw

r-my

r-rg

r-rgw

r-rx

r-rxw

r-rv

r-rcw

31
ITC
INTERCOMMUTATIVE

ëi

l-mw

l-my

l-lb

l-lbw

l-lf

l-lfw

l-ňw

l-lčw

32
CSM
CONSUMPTIVE

ëu

r-mw

r-ny

r-rb

r-rbw

r-rf

r-rfw

r-ňw

r-rčw

 

6.3.2 Alternate Representation of Bias

Bias was previously discussed in Section 5.11, shown by the word-final Cb suffix to a formative. As an alternative, however, the same Cb suffix can instead be placed in word-final position on a verbal adjunct (in which case a Vs affix in Slot F becomes mandatory). The forms of Cb used in verbal adjunct are the same as those used with formatives, except that, unlike formatives, there is no preceding glottal stop. See Table 15 in Section 5.11.1 for the specific Cb suffix for each bias.

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
(((CL)
Ve)
Cv)
Vm)
Cs
(Vs
(Cb))
[tone]

 Valences

Level

Phase +
Saction +
Illocution

Modality


Aspect

Aspect


Bias


Extension

 

6.3.3 Alternate Represenation of Phase, Sanction, and Illocution

The categories of Phase, Sanction, and Illocution were previously discussed in Sections 5.5, 5.6, and 5.3 respectively. In a formative, they are shown by a combination affix, Cv, placed in Slot V, or if an incorporated stem is present, in Slot I. Alternately, however, they may be shown by the same Cv affix in Slot C of a verbal adjunct (which entails the mandatory presence of a Vm modality infix in Slot D). The forms of Cv for a verbal adjunct are the same as those for formatives, shown in Tables 11(a) through (f) in Section 5.5.

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
(((CL)
Ve)
Cv)
Vm)
Cs
(Vs
(Cb))
[tone]

 Valence

Level

Phase +
Saction +
Illocution

Modality


Aspect

Aspect


Bias


Extension

 

6.3.4 Alternate Representation of Valence

The category of Valence was previously discussed in Section 5.7, shown by the vocalic prefix, VL in Slot VI, or, if an incorporated stem is present, in Slot II. Alternately, however, Valence may be shown by consonantal counterpart to the VL prefix, CL, placed in Slot A of a verbal adjunct (which entails the mandatory presence of affixes in Slots B, C, and D).

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
(((CL)
Ve)
Cv)
Vm)
Cs
(Vs
(Cb))
[tone]

 Valence

Level

Phase +
Saction +
Illocution

Modality


Aspect

Aspect


Bias


Extension

The forms of CL for a verbal adjunct are the same as those for formatives, shown in Table 20 below:


Table 20: CL Valence Prefixes for Verbal Adjuncts

 
Label
Valence name
CL
1
MNO
Monoactive
2
PRL
Parallel
h-
3
CRO
Corollary
y-
4
RCP
Reciprocal
w-
5
CPL
Complementary
hw-
6
NNR
Nonrelational
hm-
7
DUP
Duplicative
hn-
8
DEM
Demonstrative
hr-
9
RES
Resistive
lw-
10
IMT
Imitative
ly-
11
CNG
Contingent
rw-
12
PTI
Participative
ry-
13
IDC
Indicative
řw-
14
MUT
Mutual
řy-


6.3.5 Alternate Representation of Extension

The category of Extension is normally shown by means of the Ca affix in Slot X of the formative (see Sections 2.1, 3.4 and 3.5.3). However, in order to simplify the phonological structure of the Ca affix for purposes of euphony, Extension may be shown via the tone of the adjacent verbal adjunct. The default tone of a verbal adjunct is falling, which indicates deferral of Extension information to the Ca affix of the formative. Otherwise, Extension is conveyed by the following shifts in tone of the verbal adjunct.


Table 21: Extension As Shown by Tone Shifts in Verbal Adjunct

Tone
Extension
Falling [Extension shown by formative]
High PROXIMAL
Rising INCEPTIVE
Low TERMINATIVE
Falling-Rising DEPLETIVE
Rising-Falling GRADUATIVE

 

6.4 INCORPORATION AND FORMAT

Many languages, including English, are able to combine two separate meanings into a single verb, a process termed conflation. This is illustrated in the following English sentences:

1. He bicycled south. = He traveled south by bicycle.
2. She dolled herself up. = She made herself look as pretty as a doll.
3. They’re shelving the books. = They’re putting the books on the shelf/shelves.
4. Slide me a beer. = Give me a beer by sliding it (e.g., along the bar).

The above sentences show four verbs which respectively carry inherent senses of vector movement, transformation, positioning/placement, and giving. The patterning of such “conflated” verbs is usually random and haphazard in any given language. For example, the English to bicycle in sentence (1) means ‘to travel by means of bicycle,’ not ‘to make a bicycle’ or ‘to be a bicycle.’ On the other hand, the verb to doll up does not mean to ‘travel by doll,’ but rather ‘to make appear like a doll.’ Yet, to shelve means ‘to place on a shelf,’ not ‘to travel by means of shelves’ or ‘to make appear like a shelf.’ And none of the verbs in the first three sentences connotes the idea of giving or conveyance as does slide in sentence (4).

As can be seen, verb conflation is essentially a “short-cut” way of combining an unspoken primary verbal sense (such as movement, transformation, placement, giving, etc.) with an overtly expressed verb that conveys a secondary sense such as means, manner, or location. This can be formally notated for our four sentences above as follows:

He [1: (TRAVEL+past tense) south] [2: (BY-MEANS-OF) bicycle]
= He bicycled south.

She [1: (CAUSE-TO-RESEMBLE+past tense+reflexive)] [2: (IN-THE-MANNER-OF) doll]
= She dolled herself up.

They [1: (PUT+progressive) the books] [2: (TO-LOCATION-OF) shelves]
= They’re shelving the books.

[1: (GIVE+imperative)] a beer [2: (BY-MEANS-OF) sliding] to me
= Slide me a beer.

Note that the particular unspoken covert and overt senses (shown by the numerals 1 and 2 in the above analyses) are specific to any given verb and must be subjectively learned by the listener, i.e., a speaker of English must learn that to hand means to GIVE by MEANS of one’s hand, but to shoulder does not mean to GIVE by MEANS of one’s shoulder.

Thus, while conflation of verbs presents a potential opportunity for instantiating verbs with patterns of overt and covert meaning, the lack of systemization prevents one from knowing with certainty what pattern to use when attempting to interpret the usage of a verb form.

Ithkuil systemizes verb conflation into a productive scheme, in which any formative stem can be incorporated directly into another formative stem. The operational sense of the incorporated stem and its semantic relation to the primary formative stem is conveyed by a morphological category called format (discussed in Section 6.4.1 below). The incorporated stem is shown via the Cx and Vp affixes in Slots V and VI, where Cx indicates the root and Vp its Pattern, Stem and Designation. Format is shown as part of the Vf prefix which also shows the category of Context (previously discussed in Section 3.6).

I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI
XII
XIII
XIV
XV
(((Cv)
VL)
Cg/Cs)
Vr
(Cx/Cv
Vp/VL)
Cr
Vc
Ci +Vi
Ca
VxC
(Vf
(’Cb))
[tone]
[stress]

Phase +
Sanction
(+ Illocution)

Valence
Validation
OR
Aspect
Pattern +
Stem +
Function
Incorp.Root
OR
Phase + Sanction
(+ Illocution)
Pattern + Stem + Designation of Incorp. Root
OR
Valence
Root
Case
Illocution +
Mood +
Polarity
Essence +
Extension +
Perspective +
Configuration + Affiliation
Deriv.
Suffix
Context + Format
Bias
Version
Designa-
tion + Relation


If an incorporated stem is present (i.e., Cx and Vp are present in Slots V and VI) then a Vf affix showing the incorporated stem’s Format must also be present in Slot XII (see Section 6.4.1 below for an explanation of Format).

The values for the Vp infix are shown in Table 22 below.


Table 22: Vp infixes indicating Pattern, Stem and Designation of an Incorporated Root

Stem Vowel —>
Pattern 1
Pattern 2
Pattern 3
Informal
Designation
Stem 1
a
i
u
Stem 2
o
e
ö
Stem 3
ai
ui
ei
Formal Designation
Stem 1
â
î / û
ô
Stem 2
ê
oi
au
Stem 3
eu
iu
ou

 

6.4.1 Format

As described above, a conflated verb in English can convey different senses such as means, manner, or location, the specific sense being learnable only through actual usage and context. In Ithkuil, this sense is overtly identified by the format of the verb, shown by the Vf affix in Slot XII. The Vf affix was previously discussed in Section 3.6 on Context. Table 23 below shows the values of Vf.


Tables 23: Vf Affixes:  Context & Format

 
FORMAT
Context↓ (see Sec. 3.6)

(none)

 SCH

ISR

ATH

RSL

SBQ

CCM

OBJ

PRT

AFI
EXISTENTIAL

(a)

o

ai

â

au

ëi

oa

ea

FUNCTIONAL

i

ö

ui

ae

iu

ëu

oe

ia / ua

REPRESENTATIONAL

e

ü / öe

ei

ê

eu

öi

eo

ie / ue

AMALGAMATE

u

öa

oi

ô

ou

öu

iö / uö

io / uo


The specific interpretation of the nine formats is often dependent on the verb’s Function (see Section 5.1). This is explained in the sub-sections below for each format:

 

6.4.1.1
SCH
The Schematic

For verbs carrying DYNAMIC Function (see Sec. 5.1.2), the SCHEMATIC format indicates that the incorporated stem specifies the manner of the primary stem. So for example, when translating the English sentence I’m speeding through dinner [= eating speedily], the Ithkuil sentence would incorporate the stem corresponding to ‘speed’ into the stem ‘eat’ plus SCHEMATIC format to convey a sentence literally translatable as I'm speed-eating dinner [= eating in a manner characterized by speed.]

Similarly, the Ithkuil translation of Clouds blanketed the city would incorporate the stem corresponding to ‘blanket’ into the stem for ‘cover/engulf’ plus SCHEMATIC format to convey a sentence literally translatable as Clouds blanket-cover the city [= cover like a blanket.]

For verbs carrying STATIVE Function (see Sec. 5.1.1), the SCHEMATIC format indicates that the incorporated stem characterizes the primary stem, i.e., the primary stem has the characteristics, behavior, or acts like the incorporated stem.

For verbs carrying MANIFESTIVE Function (see Sec. 5.1.3), the SCHEMATIC format indicates that the incorporated is equivalent in identity (i.e., a copula relationship) to the primary stem, i.e., the primary stem is the incorporated stem in an existential sense.

For verbs carrying DESCRIPTIVE Function (see Sec. 5.1.4), the SCHEMATIC format indicates that the incorporated has the superficial appearance or physically or (metaphorically) resembles the primary stem, i.e., the primary stem resembles/looks like the incorporated stem.

 

6.4.1.2
ISR
The Instrumentative

The INSTRUMENTATIVE format indicates that the incorporated stem specifies the means, cause, or instrument of causation of the conflated primary sense, so that the sentence I clubbed him would be translated by incorporating the stem for ‘club’ into the stem for ‘hit/beat’ plus the INSTRUMENTATIVE format, rendering a sentence literally translatable as I club-hit him or I club-beat him [= I hit/beat him with a club].

 

6.4.1.3
OBJ
The Objective

The OBJECTIVE format indicates that the incorporated stem specifies the Patient (see Sec. 4.1.1) of the primary stem. So, for example, the Ithkuil translation of She dusted the table would incorporate the stem ‘dust’ into the stem ‘remove’ to render a sentence literally translatable as She dust-removed the table [= removed dust]. Similarly the sentence They fish that river each spring would incorporate the stem ‘fish’ into the stem ‘gather/collect’ to render They fish-gather that river each spring [= gather fish]

 

6.4.1.4
ATH
The Authoritive

The AUTHORITIVE format indicates that the incorporated stem specifies the entity of which the primary stem is the indirect/enabling cause or derivational source. So, for example, the Ithkuil translation of the English sentence He sang her cares away (= his singing allowed her to forget her cares) would incorporate the verb ‘forget’ into the verb ‘sing’ with AUTHORITATIVE format, the party ‘he’ in the EFFECTUATIVE case, and the party ‘she’ in the AFFECTIVE case.

 

6.4.1.5
PRT
The Precurrent
The PRECURRENT format indicates that the incorporated stem specifies an initial event immediately preceding or continuing on into the main verb , where the initial event is not the cause of the conflated sense, i.e., the main act/state/event would have occurred anyway, e.g., I bought some lunch (conflated sense: EAT). First X, then Y (non-causal).

 

6.4.1.6
RSL
The Resultative

The RESULTATIVE format indicates that the verb specifies the concurrent result of the conflated sense, i.e., an event which occurs in conjunction with the conflated sense but is also caused by it, e.g., The plane crashed into the water (conflated sense: FLY) First X, then Y as a result; X causes Y

 

6.4.1.7
SBQ
The Subsequent

The SUBSEQUENT format indicates that the verb specifies the subsequent cause-and-effect purpose (not the concurrent result) of the conflated sense, e.g., I’ll look in on the stew (conflated sense: GO [to kitchen]) X or the purpose of Y; X in order to Y


6.4.1.8
CCM
The Concommitant

The CONCOMMITANT format indicates that the verb specifies an incidental simultaneous event having no causal relationship, e.g., She wore jeans to church (conflated sense: GO); He sweated through her recital (Conflated sense: LISTEN) X while Y


6.4.1.9
AFI
The Affinitive

The AFFINITIVE format indicates that the incorporated stem is associated with, represents, or acts in behalf of the primary stem. So, for example, the English sentence ‘They are a group of sports officiators’ would utilize the stem for ‘sport’ incorporated into the stem for ‘officiate’ along with the AFFINITIVE format.



6.4.2 Examples of Incorporation and Format



Hëtiun-n  ivogwařļokkai  ţei.

PRL-ITV-FAC    DYN-[inc.stem: ‘recreation.leisure’]-IFL-‘ambulate’-NRM-DEL/M/CSL/CPN-TPP1/7-IFL-ISR   1+ma-ACT
She and I are planning on taking a walk later on.

 


hremsoqaiţsurkoi
PPT-
STA-[inc.stem: ‘value’]-IFL-‘human.being’-INS-NRM-DEL/A/VAR/CST-MET1/9-IFL-AMG/ATH  

‘purportedly by means of the value derived from all the varied attributes of humanity’

 


Xha  üvôqalsâniú
.
ua-OBL    MNF-[inc.stem: ‘sport’]-FML-‘official’-NRM/PRX/M/CSL/DCT-AGC2/5-FML-FNC/AFI  
They are a group of sports officiators.

 

6.4.3 Expansion of Format via Specialized Suffixes

In addition to the nine formats shown solely by the Vf vocalic suffix described above in Section 6.4.1, the category of Format can be expanded via a set of specialized suffixes, so that an incorporated root can be associated with any of the 72 main noun cases from Chapter 4.  Additionally, these suffixes allow the categories of Configuration (see Sec. 3.1) and Perspective (see Sec. 3.4) to be specified for the incorporated root.

These Format expansion suffixes are of the type VxC (Slot XI) which will be discussed in Chapter 7.  These Format expansion suffixes allow one to specify the exact meaning of a word like “child-love” using the stem for ‘love’ with an incorporated root ‘child’ so that the resulting combinations can distinguish meanings such as:

the love one has for a child
the love one has for a group of children
the love one has for children in general
the love one has for a pair of children
the love a child feels
the love that children feel in general
love experienced for the sake of a child
love experienced for the sake of a group of children
love experienced for the sake of children in general

The specifics of how these suffixes work are described in Section 7.4.15.

 

Proceed to Chapter 7: Suffixes >>

 

 

   

 

 

   
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Cover of Ithkuil Grammar book

 

For those who would like a copy of the Ithkuil Grammar
in book form, it is now available!

And while you’re at it, you can check out the novel I co-
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(It’s a political thriller/science fiction story that explores the
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Ithkuil as a “para-linguistic” interface to a quantum computer.)

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