Ithkuil: A Philosophical Design for a Hypothetical Language

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The Lexicon

 

Supplement to Lexicon (updated June 17, 2014)

 

Currently, the lexicon below lists over 900 roots, each of which contains 18 stems, for a total of 16200 stems (see Sections 2.2, 2.3, and 10.1.1 for an explanation of the structure of individual roots and their 18 stems). This represents approximately one-fourth of the roots in the language. Additional roots and their stems will be periodically added to this list as time permits.

(NOTE: The above "Supplement to Lexicon" link presents a PDF file of approximately 75 additional lexical roots and their associated stems.)

The reader should be aware that the glosses (i.e., the English translations or definitions) for each of the stems below are at times somewhat arbitrary, as Ithkuil roots and their stems have been conceptualized from the cognitive level up, without regard as to whether they correspond necessarily to an existing word or phrase in English or other languages. As a result, some of the English glosses chosen as representations for the Ithkuil stems are approximations at best.

Ideally, the best way to represent the meanings of Ithkuil stems would be to use a semantic “meta-language” comprised of a closed set of semantically universal (or near-universal) “primitives” to create semantic “formulas” which define the use of a particular stem. (The design and use of such a meta-language to translate the meanings of words from one language to another can be found in the writings of linguist Anna Wierzbicka.) However, the author has chosen not to pursue such an effort for the sake of time, as such an analysis would likely take decades to complete.

In regard to the list below, note that in some cases both a nominal (i.e., noun) and verbal gloss have been provided, while in others only one or the other is present. Nevertheless, the reader should keep in mind at all times that Ithkuil stems always convey both a nominal and verbal meaning, as explained in detail in Section 2.4.1.

The lexicon is arranged in the following alphabetical order:

B C C’ Ch Ç Č Č’ Čh D Dh F G J K K’ Kh L Ļ M N Ň P P’ Ph Q Q’ Qh R Ř S Š T T’ Th Ţ V X Xh Z Ż Ž

It should also be noted that in previous versions of the language, formative roots were divided into lexico-semantic “classes” designated by the phonological patterning of the root (there were 17 such classes in the original version of Ithkuil, ten such classes in Ilaksh). In the current version of the language, these lexico-semantic classes have been eliminated, as the author has realized that the establishment of such classes does not serve any functional purpose in “real-world” spoken/written contexts; the ability to identify the semantic class of a stem does not sufficiently aid in understanding the stem’s specific meaning. Therefore, the assignment of phoneme patterns to roots in Ithkuil is now arbitrary. While the astute reader will note that many roots pertaining to a specific semantic notion (e.g., animals, plant and substance taxonomies, spatial position, etc.) still have similar phonological patterning, such patterning is nevertheless merely incidental and is without formal significance.

 

Note on Ithkuil's Implicit “Theory of Meaning”

For those readers who may be trained in linguistics, particulary cognitive linguistics, it should be noted that at this point in the author’s development of the language, a traditional Enlightenment-based theory of meaning, assuming a one-to-one correspondence between a lexeme and its external “in-the-world” referent, has been implicitly assumed for convenience and/or expediency’s sake. A more careful and rigourous construction for Ithkuil’s lexico-semantics, given the author’s stated design goals (as described in the Introduction section), would not assume such a theory of meaning, but would rather incorporate more recent findings of cognitive science and cognitive linguistics to reflect embodied meaning and metaphor-based conceptualization. However, pursuing such a foundation for the lexico-semantics of the language would, in the author’s opinion, be extremely time-consuming (on the order of many additional years, perhaps decades, to construct). Rather than withdraw the language from public availability for such reasons, the author has chosen instead to adopt a traditional/formalist foundation for its lexico-semantics essentially out of convenience, in order to be able to showcase the language's morphology.

 

 

 

The Lexicon:

 

-B-  ‘WANT/DESIRE/REQUEST’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) want/desire [emotion + object of desire]

1. request [desire + thing requested]

2. conscious desire based on need/lack/goal

2. need/lack/necessity + thing needed or lacking

3. hope/wish [feeling + thing wished/hoped for]

3. ambition/goal/aspiration; aspire

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the feeling of desire

same as above 3 stems referring to the thing desired

same as above 3 stems referring to the feeling of desire/need

same as above 3 stems referring to the thing requested/needed

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: whim, fancy, inclination, appetite, “hunger”, greed, covet, propensity, aptness, eagerness, longing, crave, urge, passion, attract, tempt, persuade, allure, popularity, demand

 

-BB-  ‘COAT/JACKET’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-BD-   ‘NECKTIE/CRAVATTE The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV

-BDh- ‘OCTOPUS’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BG- ‘SQUID’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BJ- ‘EEL’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BK- ‘LAMPREY’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BKW-  ‘PIKE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BK’- ‘RAY’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BKh- ‘SHARK’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-


-BL- ‘middle, center (as seen parallel to long axis of entity) The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.

-BLW- ‘AQUAMARINE’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark


-BM- ‘SCALLOP’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BN- ‘MUSSEL’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BQ- ‘CRAB’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BQW-  ‘BASS’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BQ’- ‘SHRIMP/PRAWN’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BQh- ‘LOBSTER’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BR- ‘YELLOW’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-- ‘CLAM’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BT-  ‘TROUT’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BT’-  ‘TUNA’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BTh-  ‘SALMON’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-

-BTW-  ‘COD’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -VR-


-BV- ‘APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE / TECHNOLOGY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. application of knowledge / apply knowledge to practical purpose [both application and result]

1. piece of technology; tool/product resulting from the application of science

2. theorize / theory - observational knowledge utilized and integrated to create coherent explanation

2.prototype; piece of technology used to test theory

3. brainstorm; inspiration and insight into the application of knowledge to solve a problem

3. specific technological discovery; breakthrough solution

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems but with focus on the process of applying knowledge

same as above 3 stems but with focus on the result same as above 3 stems but with focus on the tool/device/piece of technology itself same as above 3 stems but with focus on the function/purpose of the technology


-BW- ‘MOUTH/ORAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. mouth [= oral orifice]

Same as INFORMAL Stems but for non-animal entity or figuratively

2. lip [use of DPX = lips]

3. interior of mouth/oral cavity

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on bodily location/physical aspect

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on purpose, use, function

 


-BY-  ‘DOG’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. dog

1. dog as resource

2. male dog

2. male dog as resource

3. female dog, bitch

3. female dog as resource

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wild/feral dog

1. domesticated/pet dog

1. dog as food/prey

1. dog as derived resource or processed product

2. wild/feral male dog

2. domesticated/pet male dog

2. male dog as food/prey

2. male dog as derived resource or processed product

3. wild/feral female dog

3. domesticated/pet female dog

3. female dog as food/prey

3. female dog as derived resource or processed product

 


-BZ- ‘DESCRIPTION/ACCOUNT/STORY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. description/account; to describe, to informally communicate an account of something [process + contents]

1. narrative story; communicate a story [process + contents]

2. relate/report/recount = communication from memory or observations [process + contents]

2. recitation; recite (=communicate/describe from record or based on memorization) [process + contents]

3. historical narrative / historical account [work itself + contents]

3. fictional narrative / fictional story [work itself + contents]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the process of describing/communi-cating

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to the process of describing/communi-cating

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

 

-BZD-   ‘POSITION BETWEEN / AMIDST / AMONG [planar 2-dimensional context, e.g., among others in a crowded room] PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-;


-BZDW-   ‘PYTHON’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

 

-BZG-   ‘POSITION BETWEEN / AMIDST / AMONG [linear unidimensional context, e.g., between two others in a queue] PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-;

 

-BZGR-   ‘VIPER’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

 

-C- ‘EXISTENCE/ONTOLOGY/METAPHYSICS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. exist objectively; something that exists; be(ing) [both ontological and metaphysical]

Same as INFORMAL stems except in reference to epistemological context [i.e., in relation to knowledge/awareness of ontological or metaphysical existence]

2. law of nature / existential axiom

3. natural/inherent

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to ontology / ontological aspect

same as above 3 stems referring to metaphysics / metaphysical aspect

 

-CK-  ‘HAT’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

 

-CKh- ‘LIQUID (OTHER THAN WATER) AS SUBSTANCE AND TOOL’ -- The stems of this root are patterned after those of the root -DH-.

-CL- ‘0/-Y/-Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’


-CM- ‘LONGITUDE / EAST-WEST’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. east-west axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

1. longitude

2. west axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

2. West longitude

3. east axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

3. East longitude

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. east-west axial direction or orientation

1. east-west geographical or geopolitical areal designation

1. meridian

1. zero meridian (Greenwich meridian)

2. west direction or orientation

2. west geographical or geopolitical areal designation

2. time zone

2. Western Hemisphere

3. east direction or orientation

3. east geographical or geopolitical areal designation

3. International Date Line

3. Eastern Hemisphere

 

-CN-  ‘PLANT TYPES’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. branched/leaved plant including its fruit or flower

same as FORMAL stems but as resource (i.e., food, fuel, material, etc.)

2. grass-like or stalked plant including its seed or grain

3. moss-like or fungal plant or mold including its spore or cyst

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. branched/leaved plant

1. flower, fruit, or blossom of branched/leaved plant

2. grass-like or stalked plant

2. seed, grain, or kernel of grass-like or stalked plant

3. moss-like or fungal plant or mold

3. spore or cyst of moss-like or fungal plant or mold

SSD for Stem 2:  1) grass  2) ground-covering plant 3) clover  4) weed 5) wildgrass
SSD for Stem 3:  1) lichen  2)  mushroom  3)  mold  4)  slime mold 5) moss  6) non-mushroom fungus

 

-CP-  ‘-X/+Y/0 SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

 

-CP’- ‘BODILY JOINT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. bodily joint (physical joint + function); flex joint

1. specialized bodily joint/juncture

2. ball & socket-type bodily joint

2. vertebra

3. standard-type joint

3. wrist/ankle/waist (lateral circular joint type)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to external hard or knob-like external body part

Same as above 3 stems referring to internal joint and its function/process

Same as above 3 stems

Same as above 3 stems

hip/flex hip, shoulder, flex shoulder
finger joint, toe joint, knee, elbow
spinal column; flex spine
wrist, ankle waist

 

-CQ-   ‘SIX’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 6 / a sextet; to be 6 in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make six-faceted / having 6 uses or aspects / sexa-  / hexa- / sixfold

3. sixth one in a sequence; be/make sixth in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 6 times the number of something; to sextuple / multiply by 6

1. a sixth / divide by 6 or into 6 parts

2. 6 times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 6 times

2. be of or make into 6 parts; separate(d) into 6 parts

3. to the 6th power; raise to the 6th power

3. to the negative 6th power; to divide by the 6th power of

 

-CR-  ‘0/-Y/0 SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’


-CT-  ‘+X/+Y/0 SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

 

-CT’- ‘THREE-DIMENSIONAL BLOCK-LIKE SHAPES/FORMS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. cube [solid volume]

Same as INFORMAL stems but as outline edges/frame only, not as solid volumes

2. rectilinear block [solid volume]

3. disc

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

 

-CW- ‘-X/0/0 SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

 

-CY-   ‘MOUSE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)


-C’-   ‘tenderness/nuturing/caring’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

 

-Ch-   ‘GRIEF / SADNESS FROM LOSS / MOURNING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. non-volitional (i.e., affective) experience of a grief/sadness due to loss; feel grief [state + content]

Same as INFORMAL stems except referring to a formal/institutionalized/symbolic expression of grief, i.e., mourning.

2. act or action caused by non-volitional experience of grief

3. cause or causal circumstance for one’s grief

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on process/behavior itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on experiential state/feeling of grief itself

 

-Ç-   ‘excitement/thrill’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-


-ÇC-  ‘DRESS’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

 

-ÇCW-   ‘SHREW’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ÇÇ-  ‘self-induced trance or self-induced state of altered consciousness, e.g., through meditation’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ÇČ-  ‘feeling of emotional maturity/superiority; feeling “above it all”’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-


-ÇČW-   ‘VOLE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)



-ÇF-  ‘feeling of piquancy, stimulated curiosity, a desire for a new experience’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-


-ÇFL- member of couple being matched or “set up” with each other — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.


-ÇK- ‘eagerness / fervor / zeal’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-


-ÇKÇ- socially adversarial based on social one-upmanship/ego gratification — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇKF- interviewer/interrogator + interviewee — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇKL- partners or team members in sporting match or sporting activity — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇKR- socially adversarial based on enmity/hatred — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇKŢ- co-participants in general activity — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇKV- co-workers/associates — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇKW- sibling relations — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇKY- members of stigmatized/isolated/oppressed societal group — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇK’- ‘LIQUID (OTHER THAN WATER) IN NATURAL MOTION’ -- The stems of this root are patterned after those of the root -KL-.


-ÇKh-  ‘post-orgasmic/post-coital bliss; “afterglow”’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

 

ÇKhW-    ‘PORCUPINE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of mammalian/avian/reptilian genus

1. member of genus as resource

2. male member of genus

2. male as resource

3. female member of genus

3. female as resource

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wild member of genus

1. bred or domesticated member of genus

1. member of genus as food/prey

1. member of genus as derived resource or processed product

2. wild male member of genus

2. bred or domesticated male member of genus

2. male as food/prey

2. male as derived resource or processed product

3. wild female member of genus

3. bred or domesticated female member of genus

3. female as food/prey

3. female as derived resource or processed product


-ÇL- ‘feeling carefree / frivolity / relaxed’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ÇM-    ‘jollity/merriment/gayness’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ÇMW- adversarial based on anger/resentment — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-

-ÇN-  ‘feeling of inherent “connection” to or oneness with the universe through space and time’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ÇNW- creditor + debtor — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇP- ‘inspiration / feeling of positive energy’  ‘uplift/inspiration (e.g., by beauty, art, music, etc.) The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ÇPÇ- lessor + lessee — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇPF- adversaries or opposing team members in sporting match or sporting activity — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇPL- official/agent of authority + supplicant/petitioner/applicant — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇPR- strangers brought together by circumstances of the moment — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇPŘ- members of same religion or belief system — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇPŢ- relationship based on compulsion/threat — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇPW- members of holy order or spiritual fellowship — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇPh-    ‘SQUIRREL’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ÇPhW-   ‘POSSUM’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ÇQ- ‘SKIRT/KILT’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-ÇQF- adversarial based on jealousy/coveting of one’s situation — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇQL- co-authors/creators of joint opus or artistic work — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇQR- adversarial based on a feud — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇQŢ- adversarial based on material envy/coveting of one’s possessions — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇQ’-    ‘CHIPMUNK’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ÇQh-  ‘feeling "high" - drug- or chemically-induced euphoria/state of altered consciousness’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ÇQhW-    ‘MOLE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

 -ÇR- ‘poignancy, “aaaaw” reaction to irresistable cuteness’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ÇT-    ‘FIT/HOLD/CONTAIN AS INTERNAL-EXTERNAL PARTITION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. holding area / containment area; hold/keep/contain

1. room, chamber

2. fit; to fit, contain (= have sufficient room for)

2. reside, situate; room as place of residence, quasi-permanent situation or default location

3. volume or boundary of containment area

3. room boundaries (i.e., walls, floor, ceiling)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the physical boundaries (“walls”) which define the containment area and prevent contents from leaking or escaping

same as above 3 stems referring to the space (“room”) within the holding area and protection of contents from external environment

same as above 3 stems referring to the room as a container separating inside from outside

same as above 3 stems referring to the space within the room as shelter or sanctuary

SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 3:  ceiling, wall, floor, dividing panel, piece of furniture serving to divide room space
EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: house, building, cell, booth, closet; snug, snugness, loose, looseness, baggy, bagginess

-ÇTL-  traders/barterers — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇTR- speaker/speechmaker/presenter + audience — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇTŘ- enmity based on revenge — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇTW- autocrat or autarch + subjects — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ÇT’-   ‘RAT’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ÇTh-  ‘ ecstatic/euphoric feeling of joie-de-vivre’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ÇThW-   ‘SKUNK’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)


-ÇV-  ‘anticipate (something positive); feeling of anticipation (for something positive)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ÇW-  ‘serenity, peace of mind’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

 

-Č- ‘PHYSICAL CONTACT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. physical contact between 2 or more objects [contact + effect]

FORMAL Stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that the context is specific to physical contact by one’s “default” appendage(s) for volitional physical contact, i.e., hands/fingers, beak, snout, tongue, pseudopod, tendril, tentacle, etc.

2. application of physical pressure/force + effect

3. move or set in motion via physical contact + resulting motion

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems but with focus on physical act of contact

same as above 3 stems but with focus on resulting effect/movement

EXAMPLE DERIVATIONS FROM THESE STEMS: feel, push, stroke, caress, tap, nudge, hit, strike, slap, punch, shove, press, rub, knock over, fall [due to being pushed], injure [via striking], etc.

 

-ČK- ‘SWITCH/ALTERATION BETWEEN MULTI-VALUED SETTINGS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. switch to a different value or setting

Same as INFORMAL stems but in reference to permanent, authoritative, formal contexts or to social or analogical contexts

2. veer, change course

3. change to a less active or more active setting; increase or decrease intensity or setting

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. switch to higher/greater value or setting

1. switch to lower/lesser value or setting

2. change to more difficult, dangerous, or unpredictable course

2. change to easier, safer, or more predictable course

3. increase to higher/stronger intensity

3. decrease to lower/weaker intensity

 

-ČKh-   ‘TEN QUADRILLION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of ten quadrillion; to be 10 quadrillion in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make 10 quadrillion-faceted / having 10 quadrillion uses or aspects / 10 quadrillion-fold

3. 10 quadrillionth in a sequence; be/make quadrillionth in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 10 quadrillion times the number of something; to multiply by 10 quadrillion

1. a ten quadrillionth / divide by 10 quadrillion or into 10 quadrillion parts

2. 10 quadrillion times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 10 quadrillion times

2. be of or make into 10 quadrillion parts; separate(d) into 10 quadrillion  parts

3. to the 10 quadrillionth power; raise to the 10 quadrillionth power

3. to the negative 10 quadrillionth power; to divide by the 10 quadrillionth power of


-ČL- ‘+X/0/0 SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’


-ČM- non-heat related method of food preparation, e.g., preparing sushi, making a peanut butter sandwich, etc. -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.


-ČN-   ‘DEGREE OF WAKEFULNESS OR CONSCIOUSNESS’
Note: Stems from this root are used in conjunction with various degree indicator affixes such as the EXN, EXD and SUF affixes from Sec. 7.7.6 in order to distinguish which polarity (awake vs. asleep) is implied.

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of consciousness or unconsciousness

1. degree of activity/vivaciousness/“energy”

2. degree of wakefulness or sleepiness

2. degree of dormancy or hibernation

3. degree of alertness/focus/attention/awareness or lack thereof

3. degree of personal intent/diligence/enterprise

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. capacity for or faculty of consciousness

1. object/entity/thought of which one is conscious

1. state of activity / vivaciousness / liveliness / energy

1. object of activity / vivaciousness / liveliness / energy

2. capacity for or faculty of wakefulness/sleepiness

2. that which stimulates awakening or lulls into sleep

2. state of dormancy/hibernation

2. object of dormancy/hibernation

3. capacity for or faculty of alertness/attention/awareness

3. that to or of which one is alert/attentive/aware

3. state of personal intent/diligence/enterprise

3. object of one’s intent/diligence/enterprise

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: sleepy, listless(ness), grogginess, “fresh”, unconscious, dull, inattentive, vigilant, to “stir”, frisky, ardent, eager, persevere, bustling, zeal

 

-ČP-   ‘-X/-Y/0 SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’


-ČP'- ‘glass (material)’ Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ČQ- ‘0/0/+Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-ČR-   ‘VULTURE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)


-ČT-  ‘+X/-Y/0 SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-ČThW-  gourd — The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-ČV-   ‘COLLAR’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-ČW- ‘0/+Y/0 SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

 

-Č’- ‘ACCESS/PASSAGE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. access point / passage; pass through, access

1. doorway (= the access portal itself, not the door which opens/closes off access)

2. passage or infiltration of one substance into another

2. gateway / portal

3. filter / screening [selective access]

3. checkpoint

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. enter / go in / pass within / ingress

1. exit / go out / egress

1. enter (through primary/official entrance/access portal)

1. exit (through primary/official entrance/access portal)

2. infiltrate / imbue / immerse

2. emit / dispense

2. receive (= welcome) ; reception

2. remove / dispel

3. filter through

3. filter out

3. admittance; admit; let in

3. oust, put out / eject; ejection

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: door, gate, let in, insert, introduce, take out, remove, penetrate, emanate, emerge

 

-Čh-  ‘MAKE/CONSTRUCT/INTEGRATE/FORM’
(NOTE:  This root does not refer to ‘make/create’ meaning ‘emit/secrete/produce’as in ‘make noise’ or ‘make milk’, etc.)

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. make/construct/create (non-mechanical) [= construct via integration of material resources]

1. mechanically construct / build from a design

2. to form/fashion/mix  (non-mechanical) [= combine ingredients/parts to form]

2. integrate parts / integration of parts

3. integrate/organize (non-mechanical)

3. machine / mechanical device

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on effort/work involved

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the result or product

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on effort/work involved

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the result or product

NOTE:  The above meanings represent these stems as used in conjunction with the COMPLETIVE (CPT) version.  Their default PROCESSUAL (PCT) counterparts would translate as ‘plan (to)’, ‘design’, etc.
Derivations:  cobble together, rig, system, conspire

 

-D-   ‘NAME/DESIGNATION/TITLE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. name + referent; to be named, to be called

1. title + referent

2. designation/reference + referent; refer to as

2. formal designation + referent

3. label / nickname + referent; to go by

3. role

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems but with focus on the reference

Same as above 3 stems but with focus on the referent

Same as above 3 stems but with focus on the reference

Same as above 3 stems but with focus on the referent


-DBR- inflammatory disorder — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DBY- pulmonary disorder   — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DD-   ‘PANTS’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-DDL- degenerative tissue disorder — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DDR- mental disorder (i.e., no discernible lesion) — SSD Derivatives:  1) schizo-affective 2) sociopathic condition 3) schizophrenia 4) personality disorder 5) depression 6) dissociative disorder 7) manic condition, mania 8) unknown mental disorder 9) bipolar condition

-DDW- topical skin disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DDY- neuro-muscular/myalgic disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DDŘ- peripheral nervous system disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DG-  ‘APRON’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-DGL- cellular/metabolic disorder — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DGR- malignant tumorous /neoplastic disorder; cancer  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-..

-DGV- cardio-vascular disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DGW- ocular/eye disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DGY- back pain disorder (neuro-muscular, not spinal) — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.


-DK- ‘MISCELLANEOUS BODY PARTS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. buttock

1. haunch

2. breast/teat

2. snout/proboscis

3. navel

3. fin

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function, purpose or impact/effect

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function, purpose or impact/effect

 

-DL-  ‘HAND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. hand (as gestalt entity) [both physical body part and function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “hand” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. hand (as holder, grasper, striker) [both physical body part and function]; to grasp-->hold

3. leg (as manipulator, handler, feeler) [both physical body part and function]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. hand as physical body part

1. function of hand as “feeler”- focuser of body’s tactile sense

2. hand as main tool of body

2. function of hand as holder/grasper

3. hand as limb/extension

3. function of hand as manipulator/handler

SSD derivatives:  1) fist 2) palm 3) knuckle 4) hand as flat “blade”, e.g., for karate chop 5) finger 6) thumb 7) “butt” of hand [=lower part of palm] 8) fingernail  9) bottom side of fist [as when pounding fist onto table; for individual fingers, use following affixes + SSD/5 for ‘finger’:  index = “main finger” or “first finger”, middle finger = “mid-finger” or “long finger” or “2nd finger”, ring finger = “3rd finger”, pinkie = 4th finger or small(est) finger

 

-DLW- nasal disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DLY- mid/inner ear disorder; hearing problem  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DM-  ‘ROBE(S)/TOGA’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-DMY- neurological disorder — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

 

-DN- ‘GOODWILL/FRIENDLINESS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. being nice [= emotional/spiritual/physical support of another’s interests]

1. good samaritanship, going out of the way to help

2. goodwill, benevolent intent, kindness

2. peace / fellowship

3. amicability / friendliness

3. friendship (unidirectional)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act(ions) or behavior

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on emotion or feeling

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act(ions) or behavior

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on emotion or feeling

Derivations:  altruism, being friends, affable


-DNW- liver disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

 

-DR-     ‘MANAGE/GUIDANCE/COMPLIANCE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. guide / guideline + compliance

1. rule, precept + obedience

2. manage / direct + compliance

2. preside over / mete out law / govern + abidance

3. discipline + submission/obedience

3. moral guideline + personal rectitude

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. guide / guideline

1. follow guide / follow guideline

1. rule, precept

1. obey rule or precept

2. manage / direct

2. comply / follow direction(s)

2. preside over / met out law / govern

2. abide by law / obey law

3. apply discipline

3. submit to discipline

3. moral guideline

3. personal rectitude


-- ‘ORANGE’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark



-DV-   ‘SMOOTHNESS/ROUGHNESS (= TACTILE COARSENESS) The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -KV-.

-DW- seller + buyer — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

 

-DY- ‘SENSE/SENSATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sense/sensation, “feel” / “feeling” [faculty/act of sensing + sensation itself]; an act of sensing something

1. examine via the senses [both act and result/outcome]

2. sensor / sensory organ [function + sensor itself]

2. sensor(y) device/instrument [both use and device itself]

3. imagine a sensation or feeling / imagined sensation or feeling [faculty/act of sensing + sensation itself]

3. create/induce a sensory experience [both act and result/outcome]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. to sense / act of sensing

1. a sensation, a feeling

1. examine via the senses [the act thereof]

1. resulting evidence of senses

2. sense faculty/ability

2. sensor(y) organ

2. sensor(y) device/instrument [the use thereof]

2. sensor(y) device or instrument [the device/instrument itself]

3. imagine a sensation/feeling

3. a mentally imagined sensation

3. create a sensory experience or feeling [the act thereof]

3. sensation/feeling as externally created/induced

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  perceive, detect, perception

-Dh- ‘WATER AS SUBSTANCE AND TOOL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. (some) water; (be/make) wet / moist(en)

1. (some) water as component of life

2. (some) water in context of usage [both substance and use]

2. (some) water as nourishment; to consume/drink water

3. ice

3. (some) water as biological environment or medium

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. (some) water [substance itself]

1. degree of moisture [from water]

1. (some) water of one’s corporeal body

1. hydration; hydrate

2. water as “tool” (e.g., for washing, for powering a turbine, etc.)

2. wash, clean [with water]

2. act of drinking water; to drink water

2. to water (e.g., plants)

3. ice / freeze

3. float

3. (some) water from a natural environmental setting

3. to inhabit water / live in water / water-dwelling

EXAMPLE DERIVATIONS FROM THIS STEM: bathe, lave, submerge, sink, dunk, immerse, dry, drench(ed), irrigate, swim, the sea (as environment); dehydrate; thirst


-DhBL- genetic disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhBW- musculo-skeletal disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhBV- glandular/endocrine disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhBZ- upper gastric disorder; throat/mouth disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhGL- blood/hematological disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhGR- invasive skin disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhGV- spinal condition or disorder — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhGW- microbial infection — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhGY- physical brain disorder (i.e., discernible lesion) — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-. SSD Derivatives:  general dementia, multi-infarct dementia, stroke,

-DhGZ- lower gastro-intestinal disorder; bowel problem  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhL- ‘MAROON’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-DhM- the common cold — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhMW- non-malignant tumorous/neoplastic disorder; non-cancerous growth  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhMY- auto-immune condition  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-.

-DhN-  ‘subjective feeling of safety/security, relaxation, and peace-of-mind one feels by being at or returning home; “home-sweet-home”feeling.’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-. Derivations: hospitality; make one feel at home, make oneself at home

-DhNW- mid gastric disorder; stomach/esophagal disorder  — The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -SXh-

-DhŘ- alcohol, wood    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-DhW- alcohol, grain     —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-DhY- ‘TAIL’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PR-

 

-F-    ‘SPATIAL ORIENTATION / POSITION / DIRECTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. general spatial position [currently or within context of utterance]; be situated at

1. specific spatial position at “end point”; be situated at “end point” of

2. general orientation (along or relative to directional axes); to “face” [toward]

2. specific orientation toward “end point” of; to “face” squarely

3. general direction/axis of movement; direct/move along axis of

3. specific direction/axis of movement toward “end point” of; to head straight for

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. general position toward “one side” of opposed spatial points

1. general position toward “other side” of opposed spatial points

1. specific position at “one end” of opposed spatial points

1. specific position at “other side” of opposed spatial points

2. general orientation toward “one side” of opposed spatial points

2. general orientation toward “other side” of opposed spatial points

2. specific orientation toward “one end” of opposed spatial points

2. specific orientation toward “other end” of opposed spatial points

3. general direction toward “one side” of opposed spatial points

3. general direction toward “other side” of opposed spatial points

3. specific direction toward “one end” of opposed spatial points

3. specific direction toward “other end” of opposed spatial points



-FC-  ‘GENERIC FLYING BUG’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FF-    ‘PLEASURE- or PAIN-BASED VOCALIZATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sigh (affective/non-volitional)

Same as INFORMAL stems but referring to deliberate (i.e., volitional) vocalizations

2. squeal/groan/moan (affective/non-volitional)

3. gasp (affective/non-volitional)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems as triggered by physical or mental  pleasure or satisfaction

Same as above 3 stems as triggered by physical or mental distress, pain, torment, or dissatisfaction

SSD DERIVATIONS:  cry, sob, howl, whimper, murmur
OTHER MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  weep


-FFR- allies — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FFM- predator + prey — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.


-FFY-  ‘GNAT’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FKÇ-  ‘APHID’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FKL- matchmaker + parties being matched — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FKR-  ‘MOSQUITO’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FKŘ- warring parties — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FKŢ- lender + borrower — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FKW- entertainer/emcee + audience — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FKY- invader + invadee — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.


-FK’- Sulfur  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-FKh- Lead    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-FKhW-  safflower — The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-FL- ‘BLACK’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-FLY-  ‘HOUSEFLY’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

 

-FN-  ‘COUSIN’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. cousin [male or female]

1. step-cousin [male or female]

2. male cousin

2. male step-cousin

3. female cousin

3. female step-cousin

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. cousin [male or female – related through one’s mother]

1. cousin [male or female – related through one’s father]

1. cousin [male or female – related through one’s stepmother]

1. cousin [male or female – related through one’s stepfather]

2. male cousin [related through one’s mother]

2. male cousin [related through one’s father]

2. male cousin [related through one’s stepmother]

2. male cousin [related through one’s stepfather]

3. female cousin [related through one’s mother]

3. female cousin [related through one’s father]

3. female cousin [related through one’s stepmother]

3. female cousin [related through one’s stepfather]

 


-FPÇ-  ‘BUTTERFLY’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FPL- perpetrator + victim — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FPŢ-  ‘FIREFLY’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FQL- advisor + party seeking advise — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FQR- fellowship, “band of brothers”, fraternity, sorority, etc. — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FQŢ- fellow hobbyists or enthusiasts — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FQh-  ‘bother, annoyance (based on displeasure at or disagreement with external circumstances)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

 

-FR- ‘TIME PERIOD/DURATION LESS THAN ONE DAY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. moment/instant

1. ‘second’ [= basic unit of cyclic time, based on clapping of hands once together then once with back of hands together]

2. a ‘while’

2. ‘minute’ = 100 seconds

3. portion of a day

3. ‘hour’ = 100 minutes

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above three stems w/ focus on elapsed time

Same as above three stems w/ focus on time during which

Same as above three stems w/ focus on elapsed time

Same as above three stems w/ focus on time during which

SSD affix used with FORMAL stems by degree:  1) 1/100 of time period 2) 1/10 3) ¼ 4) ½  5) exactly/precisely 6) twice the duration 7) 4 times 8) 10 times 9) 100 times

SSD affix used with INFORMAL Stem No. 3 by degree:  1) midnight to dawn period [Spanish ‘madrugada’] 2) dawn [use of CPT or TRM = ‘sunrise’] 3) early morning 4) morning 5) midday 6) afternoon [use of CPT or TRM = ‘sunset’] 7) twilight 8) evening 9) late night, from darkness till midnight

 

-- ‘INFIRMITY/PHYSICAL DISABILITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. general weakness/infirmity (e.g., age-related or illness-related)

1. acute infirmity, attack, flare-up

2. specific physical disability or abnormality; disabled

2. injury; injure(d)

3. lame, crippled, handicapped, impaired (permanently or chronically)

3. impaired; decreased mobility (temporary)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on underlying condition itself

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical effect, impact, symptoms, manifestation

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on underlying condition itself

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical effect, impact, symptoms, manifestation


-FS- ‘side/flank, lateral area’ The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.

-FSK- club members — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FSK’- owner + pet — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FSKh-  ‘DRAGONFLY’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FSM-  ‘WASP’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FSN- members of business/executive management — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FSP- relationship between business associates — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FSP’-  ‘GRASSHOPPER’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FSQ- members of secret society — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FSQW-    ‘PHEASANT’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-FSQ’- “center of attention” + sycophants — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FSQh- sage + disciples — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FST-  ‘MOTH’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FSY-  ‘FLEA’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’


-- ‘ABDOMEN/THORAX/TORSO/CHEST’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. thorax/torso [both body part and function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “mid-section” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. abdomen/midsection (lower front half of torso) [both body part and function]

3. chest (upper front of torso) [both  body part and function)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

NOTE:  Due to the bilateral symmetry of this body part, the above stems are often used in the DUPLEX configuration, the UNIPLEX form referring only to one side of the bodily part or the other.


-FŠK-  ‘BUMBLEBEE’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FŠKh- fan + celebrity — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FŠK’- supervisor/boss + employee — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-FŠP-  ‘HONEYBEE’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FŠP’-  ‘HORNET’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FŠQh-  ‘MANTIS’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FŠTh-  ‘LOCUST’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-FT-   ‘FULLNESS/EMPTINESS’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -KV-.

-FTh-  ‘LEGGING/SOCK’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

 

--  ‘INSECT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of particular genus of insect

1. member of genus as resource

2. male member of genus

2. male as resource

3. female member of genus

3. female as resource

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wild member of genus

1. bred or domesticated member of genus

1. member of genus as food/prey

1. member of genus as derived resource or processed product

2. wild male member of genus

2. bred or domesticated male member of genus

2. male as food/prey

2. male as derived resource or processed product

3. wild female member of genus

3. bred or domesticated female member of genus

3. female as food/prey

3. female as derived resource or processed product

MAT Suffix used to indicate life stage: larvae/grub, chrysalis, cocoon, adult, etc.
SSD Suffix used as follows: 1) egg, 2) wing, 3) oil/secretion, 4) silk/web, 5) skin/pellicle, 6) tail, 7) horn, 8) leg(s) 9) [open]


-FY-   ‘EIGHT

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 8 / an octet; to be 8 in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make eight-faceted / having 8 uses or aspects / octo- / eightfold

3. eighth one in a sequence; be/make eighth in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 8 times the number of something; to octtuple / multiply by 8

1. an eighth / divide by 8 or into 8 parts

2. 8 times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 8 times

2. be of or make into 8 parts; separate(d) into 8 parts

3. to the 8th power; raise to the 8th power

3. to the negative 8th power; to divide by the 8th power of

̀


-G-  ‘COMPONENTIAL PART OF WHOLE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. component/part of something + its function/purpose

Same as INFORMAL stems but referring to a separable/detachable component/part, as opposed to INFORMAL stems which refer to an inalienable or integrated component/part

2. appearance/condition of component/part + its function/purpose

3. component/part as seen in relation to the greater whole

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. component/part itself

1. function/purpose of component/part

2. phsycial appearance/condition of component/part

2. impact/effect of component’s/part’s condition on its function/purpose

3. component/part itself as seen in relation to the greater whole

3. function/purpose of component/part itself in relation to the greater whole

-GB-  ‘FANTASTIC OR IMAGINARY CREATURE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. fantastic or imaginary creature/beast

1. mythological/symbolic creature/beast

2. winged fantastic creature/beast

2. legendary being/creature/beast, allegedly real

3. reptilian/saurian fantastic creature/beast

3. alien/extraterrestrial being

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body or presence of creature/beast itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the mind, personality, character, or interaction/communication with the creature/beast

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body or presence of creature/beast itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the mind, personality, character, or interaction/communication with the creature/beast

SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 1: 
SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 2:  dragon
SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 3:
SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 1:  centaur, sphinx, satyr, unicorn, chimera
SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 2:  vampyre, werewolf, yeti

 

-GD- ‘NECK’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. neck (as gestalt entity) [body part + function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “neck” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, complex 3-dimensional form, plant, etc.

2. neck (as bodily support/swivel point for head) [body part + function

3. neck (as narrowest, most vulnerable body part) [body part + function]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. neck as physical body part

1. neck as functional body part

2. neck as bodily support/swivel point for head

2. neck as functional support/swivel point for head

3. neck as physically narrowest, most vulnerable body part)

3. neck as functionally narrowest, most vulnerable body part

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  nape, throat (i.e., front part of neck)

-GDR-    ‘ALBATROSS’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-GDh- ‘cloth/fabric’Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

 -GG-  ‘VEIL’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

 

-GL-   ‘STATE OF HEALTH/ILLNESS/WELL-BEING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. state of physical health / physical well-being

1. state of mental health / mental well-being

2. physical illness; sick(ness)

2. mental illness

3. physical injury/wound/lesion/trauma

3. mental trauma

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on effect

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on cause

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on effect

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on cause

SSD affix used with Stem 2 of both INFORMAL and FORMAL stem in conjunction w/ the AGC2/7 affix give:  1) nurse 2) emergency technician 3) therapist 4) caregiver 5) doctor 6) surgeon 7) healer 8) “medicine man” 9) medical assistant
Derivations:  madness, craziness, insanity

 

-GM- ‘TWO-DIMENSIONAL OUTLINE SHAPES’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1.   generic 2-D outline shape (e.g., the shape of a close-course race-track, the outline of the shore of a lake, a drawing of a national border on a map, etc.)

1. 2-D outline shape generically distorted

2. generic 2-D outline horizontally elongated

2. 2-D outline shape obliquely elongated / skewed along one axis

3. generic 2-D outline vertically elongated

3. 2-D outline shape medially compressed, i.e., “squished/pinched in the middle”

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form


-GN- ‘wax’Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-GR-  ‘NUTRITION / NUTRITIONAL CONSUMPTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. food and drink; to eat and drink

1. eat a serving of food or drink; to dine

2. food; to eat

2. prepared/cooked food; to eat prepared/cooked food

3. drink (i.e., substance drunk); to drink

3. processed drink or spirits; to drink processed drink or spirits

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. eat and drink as biological process

1. food and drink (substances consumed)

same as above 3 stems but with focus on the process of consumption

same as above 3 stems but with focus on the items consumed

2. eat/ingest/consume

2. item of solid food

3. drink/imbibe

3. liquid (to be) drunk

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: cooking, meal, repast, feast, become drunk, gorge(d); chef, cook, brewer

 

-- ‘SKY BLUE’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-GV-    ‘ARTICLE OF CLOTHING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. piece of clothing as covering or fashion; to wear such

1. piece of clothing as part of uniform or costume; to wear such

2. piece of clothing as distinguishing marker or indicator of station; to wear such

2. part of uniform or costume as indicator of station/job; to wear such

3. piece of clothing as ornament or accessory; to wear such

3. part of uniform or costume as ornament; to wear such

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. piece of clothing as covering; to wear such

1. piece of clothing as fashion; to wear such

1. part of uniform as covering; to wear such

1. part of costume as covering; to wear such

2. piece of clothing as distinguishing marker; to wear such

2. piece of clothing as indicator of station; to wear such

2. part of uniform as indicator of station/job; to wear such

2. part of costume as indicator of station/job; to wear such

3. piece of clothing as ornament; to wear such

3. piece of clothing as accessory; to wear such

3. part of uniform as ornament; to wear such

3. part of costume as ornament; to wear such

 

-GW-   ‘AMBULATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. ambulate (as natural to specific species, e.g., walk, slither, fly, crawl, etc.)

1. “formal” ambulation, e.g., march, prance

2. rapid ambulation (as per specific species, e.g., run, gallop, scamper, scurry, etc.)

2. purposeful rapid ambulation, e.g., flee, race

3. unnatural or affected ambulation

3. deliberately unnatural or affected ambulation, e.g., swagger, saunter

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the nature of the bodily movement/gait

same as above 3 stems referring to  the translative/directional motion from one point toward another

same as above 3 stems referring to the nature of the bodily movement/gait

same as above 3 stems referring to  the translative/directional motion from one point toward another

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: skip, shuffle, slink; lead, follow
SSD Derivatives:  1) swim on surface  2) swim/glide underwater 3) slither 4) crawl 5) walk  6) hop 7) jump/leap  8) swing (e.g., through trees, from vines, etc.)  9) fly


-GY- ‘WHITE’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-GZ-   ‘TENSENESS (= STRAIN)’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -KV-.

-GZB-   ‘INTERTWINED/INTERMINGLED/INTERMIXED POSITION/STATE’ [individual components separable/extractable] PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-;

-GZBL-   ‘COBRA’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-GZD- ‘+X/0/+Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-GZDR-    ‘RATTLESNAKE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-GZDW-    ‘ASP’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-GZL-   ‘0/0/0 SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-GZV- ‘+X/0/-Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’



-J- ‘VERTICAL MOTION / ASCENT & DESCENT / UP & DOWN’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-JGW-    ‘HAWK’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-JK-: ‘oval’ The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -GM-.

 

-JM- ‘IN-LAW/FOSTER RELATIONS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of parent/child in-law relationship

1. member of foster family

2. male member of parent/child in-law relationship

2. male member of foster family

3. female member of parent/child in-law relationship

3. female member of foster family

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. parent in-law

1. child in-law

1. foster parent

1. foster child

2. father in-law

2. son in-law

2. foster father

2. foster son

3. mother in-law

3. daughter in-law

3. foster mother

3. foster daughter


-JPh-:  ‘egg-shaped’ The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -GM-.

-JQ’- Platinum         — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-     

-JTh-: ‘half-circle/semi-circle’ The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -GM-.

-JW-  ‘SCARF’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

 

-K-  ‘PATH-ORIENTED TRANSLATIVE MOTION’ (QUASI-LINEAR)

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. move from one place to another; translative motion (i.e., motion from one place toward another)

1. journey; to travel, traverse, to journey

2. course/way/route/trajectory followed between two points

2. route travelled/traversed on journey

3. move between two points; motion along path from one point to another; to cross/go across from one side to another

3. travel between two points / make a crossing / travel across

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. motion “outward”; go

1. motion “inward”; come

1. go travelling / be off

1. journey toward

2. movement away; go away (= increase distance between two objects)

2. close in / get close(r) (= decrease distance between two objects)

2. travel further away from

2. reach vicinity of / close in on

3. leave (= move away from one point toward some distant point)

3. approach (= approach one point from direction of some distant point)

3. departure; depart

3. arrival; arrive / reach destination

Morphological derivations:  sojourn, set off / set out, set in motion; self-directed movement

 

-KC- ‘LOWER ORDER LIFE FORM’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. lower-order life form (i.e. non-vertebrate)

same as INFORMAL stems but as resource (i.e., food, fuel, material, etc.)

2. microbe

3. non-microbial animal

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. bacterium

1. soft-bodied animal (e.g., jellyfish, sponge, slime mold)

2. virus

2. exoskeletal animal (e.g., insect, arthropod, crustacean)

3. protist

3. endoskeletal animal

 

--     ‘AFFECTIVE BODILY SENSATIONS (SURFACE-TACTILE)’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1.   itch

1.    “creeps”/crawling sensation

2.   tingle

2.   tickle

3.   sting/prick

3.   “chill” feeling / feeling of hairs standing on end

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above three stems w/ focus on effect/sensation itself

same w/ focus on causal act or source, e.g., the stinging itself, the interaction b/w irritant and skin giving rise to the itch, etc.

same as above three stems w/ focus on effect/sensation itself

same w/ focus on causal act or source

 

--  EXCUSE / FOREGIVENESS / ABSOLUTION / AMNESTY

act of seeking and granting excuse, of seeking to be condoned and being condoned

seeking of and granting of propitiation/ appeasement/placation

the craving of pardon/forgiveness plus the granting of pardon/forgiveness

the seeking of and granting of absolution

atonement/make amends/do penance plus the act of redemption/recognition of one’s amends

the seeking of and granting of amnesty or indemnification

ask to be excused for one’s conduct/traits/presence, etc. / seek to be condoned or to have one’s conduct or presence overlooked or allowed for

to excuse, condone, allow for; act of excusing or condoning someone’s conduct/traits/presence, etc.

seek to be appeased or placated; state of seeking appeasement or placation

propitiate, appease, placate; act of appeasement or placation

crave pardon, beg forgiveness

pardon/forgive; act of pardoning or forgiveness

seek absolution, seek to be absolved

absolve

atone, make amends, do penance, seek redemption

redeem, accept one’s penance or amends

seek/try for amnesty or indemnification

grant amnesty, indemnify; act of granting amnesty or indemnification

Note that this root, like the root -SP-exchange’ refers to a naturally two-sided (i.e., complementary) process involving the acts or states of mind of two different parties:  the party doing the excusing, pardoning, forgiving, absolution, etc., and the party seeking to be excused, pardoned, forgiven, absolved, etc. The holistic stems refer to this complementary process, while the complementary stems reference each “side” of the situation.

Note also that the speaker should take care to utilize Version categories carefully with these stems (especially when using the holistic stems), in order to distinguish whether or not the person seeking pardon, forgiveness, etc., is, in fact, pardoned, forgiven, etc.  Likewise, the speaker should consider whether it is appropriate to utilize a Valence category when using these stems, given that their semantics naturally entail the actions/states of two parties


-hW-  ginger — The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

 

-KF-  ‘TYPES OF HARD OR NON-LIVING BODILY TISSUES’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. tooth

1. head hair

2. fingernail/toenail/claw

2. whisker / facial hair

3. hard growth of skin (e.g., wart, corn, callus, bunion, scar)

3. pubic/armpit hair

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical tissue itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function, purpose, or effect/impact

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical tissue itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function, purpose, or effect/impact

Morphological derivative from FORMAL Stem 1:  bald
SSD Derivatives for FORMAL Stem 2:  mustache, beard, sideburn
SSD Derivatives for INFORMAL Stem 1:  incisor, fang, bicuspid, molar
SSD Derivatives for INFORMSL Stem 3;:  wart, corn, callus, bunion, scar


-KK-   ‘SOLIDITY/HOLLOWNESS (= PERMEABILITY)’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -KV-.

-KKR- ‘OBLIQUE VERTICAL MOTION’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-KK’- business partnership — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-KL-   ‘WATER IN NATURAL MOTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a flow of water / to flow or run

1. river / to flow as a river / to run as a river

2. sprinkle / shower; to sprinkle or shower upon

2. rain(fall); to rain

3. cascade / pour [= free falling of water]

3. waterfall

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. water component of a flow of water

1. channel or course of a flow of water

1. water component of a river

1. channel or course of a river

2. water component of a sprinkle/shower

2. trajectory or course of a sprinkle/shower

2. water component of rain

2. “path” or course of a rain shower

3. water component of a cascade or pouring of water

3. trajectory or course of a pouring of water

3. water component of a waterfall

3. channel or “groove” of a waterfall

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: flood, downpour, to rain “cats and dogs”, brook, stream, rivulet, arroyo, floodplain

 

-KLW- ‘TURQUOISE’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-KM-  ‘WEIGHT/MASS’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -KV-.

 

KN-    ‘SNAKE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of mammalian/avian/reptilian genus

1. member of genus as resource

2. male member of genus

2. male as resource

3. female member of genus

3. female as resource

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wild member of genus

1. bred or domesticated member of genus

1. member of genus as food/prey

1. member of genus as derived resource or processed product

2. wild male member of genus

2. bred or domesticated male member of genus

2. male as food/prey

2. male as derived resource or processed product

3. wild female member of genus

3. bred or domesticated female member of genus

3. female as food/prey

3. female as derived resource or processed product

 

KP-  ‘LENGTH’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of (static) dimensional property (e.g., short/long)

same as INFORMAL stems but in reference to an applied contextual gestalt (e.g., the vicinity, the depths, the expanse, the interregnum, the surroundings, the perimeter, etc.)

2. dynamic decrease in degree of dimensional property (e.g., shorten/ing)

3. dynamic increase in degree of dimensional property (e.g., lengthen/ing)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems applied to spatial context

same as above 3 stems applied to temporal context

  

-KR-  TOOL/INSTRUMENT

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. tool, instrument, implement as extension of bodily appendage(s) (e.g., as per force, strength, precision, reach, pressure, instrument as labor-saving or efficiency-increasing means etc.)

1. utensil, specialized implement for assisting in refined task

2. tool, instrument as means of “defying nature” (e.g., wheel, wedge, fulcrum, etc.

2. mechanical/motorized/electric/electronic implement/device

3. supply-like resource/implement used by itself or in  association with specific tool (e.g., nail, tack, clothespin, hook)

3. supply-like resource/implement used as fuel or input for mechanical/electrical/electronic implement/device

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function/use thereof

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function/use thereof

Morphological Derivatives:  equipment, gear (collection of associated tools/supplies), apparatus, appliance, paraphernalia, machine
SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 1: awl, pliers, screwdriver, wrench, pick, shovel/spade, chisel, file, stick/pole/bar
SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 2:  wheel, jack, wedge, fulcrum, pulley, sling, lever, gear, spool
SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 3: nail, tack, clip/fastener, hook, screw, bolt, nut, piece of wire, screwdriver bit/head
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 1:  anvil, fork, spoon, scissors, vice/clamp, plane, saw, tweezers, puncher
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 2:  drill, power saw, engine/motor
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 3:  drill bit,

 

-KS-   ‘TWO/DUALITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set of two / a duo; to be two in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make dual / having 2 uses or aspects / bi- / twofold

3. second one in a sequence; be/make second in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. twice the number of something; to double / multiply by two

1. half; halve / divide by or into two

2. two times [= iterations] / twice; to be/make/do twice

2. be of or make into two parts; bifurcate(d)

3. to the second power / squared; to square / raise to the second power

3. to the negative second power / inverse square; to divide by the square of

 

-KSF-   ‘POSITION BETWEEN / AMIDST / AMONG [volume-based 3-dimensional context, e.g., sky crowded with balloonists] PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-;

-KSL-  ‘-X/0/+Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-KSP ‘-X/+Y/+Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’ 

-KSR- ‘0/0/-Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-KSS-   HADRONS (COMPOSITE FERMIONS OR COMPOSITE BOSONS)

INFORMAL

FORMAL

baryon (including nucleons, hyperons, and charmed particles)

meson

nucleon

light unflavored meson / effect (i.e., nuclear interaction [strong and weak nuclear force]

hyperon or charmed particle

high-energy flavored meson / effect

COMPLEMENTARY STEMS

COMPLEMENTARY STEMS

ordinary (positive) baryon

anti-baryon

vector meson

pseudoscalar meson

proton

neutron

light unflavored meson

effect of light unflavored meson (i.e., nuclear interaction [strong and weak nuclear force]

hyperon

charmed particle

high-energy flavored meson

effect of high-energy flavored meson

The PLV1/1 suffix is used for these stems where applicable to convey the corresponding antiparticle. The PLV1/5 suffix is used for these stems where applicable to convey the corresponding neurtral (non-charged) particle.

SSD1 suffix forms applied to Informal stem P1/S3 to indicate particular types of hyperons and charmed particles:
1) lambda particle
2)
3) sigma particle
4)
5) xi particle
6)
7) delta particle
8)
9) omega particle

SSD1 suffix forms applied to Formal stem P1/S1 to indicate particular types of mesons:
1) pion
2) rho meson
3) omega meson
4) phi meson
5) J/psi meson
6) upsilon meson
7) D meson
8) B meson
9) kaon

 

 

-KST-  ‘+X/+Y/+Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-KSW- ‘-X/0/-Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

 

--   ‘FOOL/CLOWN’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. fool(ish); dupe

1. town fool, village idiot

2. buffoon, laughingstock

2. clown

3. nerd, dweeb

3. jester

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems in non-serious context of “in fun” or “for laughs”

Same as above 3 stems in poignant, sorrowful, pathetic context

Same as above 3 stems in context of entertainment

Same as above 3 stems in context of parody or as a foil for society

 


-KŠP-   ‘-X/-Y/+Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’


-KŠT-  ‘+X/-Y/+Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

 

-KT-   ‘ROCK/MINERAL-BASED SOIL/GROUND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. stone [as substance/material or substrate/ground]

1. rock(y) [= specific natural embodiment of stone]

2. sand [as substance/material or substrate/ground]

2. gravel

3. clay [as substance/material or substrate/ground]

3. lava [w/ CPT = volcanic rock/lava-based rock]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on substance

Above 3 stems used to identify material nature of the substrate, ground or firmament

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on substance

Above 3 stems used to identify material nature of the substrate, ground or firmament

 

-KT’-  ‘PRESSURE-BASED or REACTION-BASED
or GRAVITATION-BASED EQUILIBRIUM/MOTION/PROPULSION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. something hovering or floating; for something to hover, float, or be suspended upon (based on equilibrium, via pressure or volume-dispersion, against other medium such as air, water, gas, vapor, etc.) [both the object hovering/suspended + the act of suspension/hovering/floating]

The Formal stems for this root are identical to the Informal roots in meaning, with the distinction of referring specifically to man-made, mechanical means/vehicles/vessels or contexts involving reaction-based (i.e., fuel-driven) propulsion, as opposed to the naturally occurring or non-mechanical contexts implied by use of the Informal stems.

 

2. something hovering or floating; for something to hover, float, or be suspended upon (based on gravitational equilibrium or nullification, e.g. at the top of an arc of trajectory or at a La Grange point) [both the object hovering/suspended + the act of suspension/hovering/floating]

3. something in orbit around another body; to orbit [both the object hovering/suspended + the act of suspension/hovering/floating]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as the above 3 stems but with specific reference to the object which hovers, floats, or is suspended Same as the above 3 stems but with specific reference to the act or state of hovering, floating, or suspension

 

-KTh-  ATOM / NUCLEUS / ELECTRON CLOUD

INFORMAL

FORMAL

atom

instance of chemical element

atomic nucleus

nuclide (i.e., specific configuration of Z-value, N-value, and energy state for a particular atomic nucleus)

atomic electron cloud

orbital state (i.e., state and behavior of an electron based on its orbital probability distribution)

COMPLEMENTARY STEMS

COMPLEMENTARY STEMS

physical atom itself

behavioral state/effect of physical atom

physical instance of chemical element

effect of physical instance of chemical element

atomic nucleus itself

behavioral state/effect of atomic nucleus

specific nuclide configuration

effect of specific nuclide configuration

atomic electron cloud itself

behavioral state/effect of atomic electron cloud, i.e., photon-mediated attractive force (Coulomb force)

orbital state

effect of orbital state

The following important notes apply to use of the above stems:

SSD1 suffix derivatives for Formal P1/S2:
1) isotone
2) isobar
3) nuclear isomer / nuclear energy state
4) stable nuclide
5) isotope
6) ground state of nuclide
7) excited state or nuclide
8) mirror nucleus
9) unstable/radioactive/radionuclide

 

 

-- ‘SIMILARITY/SAMENESS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. similar(ity) to oneself (on another occasion)

1. same (= selfsame)

2. similar(ity) to (an)other entity/instance

2. same (= identical to (an)other entity/instance)

3. remind (one) of / reminder

3. same (= copy/replacement)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on appearance or superficial impression

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on function, purpose or behavior

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on identity or appearance

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on function, purpose or behavior

 

-KŢR-    ‘EAGLE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of mammalian/avian/reptilian genus

1. member of genus as resource

2. male member of genus

2. male as resource

3. female member of genus

3. female as resource

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wild member of genus

1. bred or domesticated member of genus

1. member of genus as food/prey

1. member of genus as derived resource or processed product

2. wild male member of genus

2. bred or domesticated male member of genus

2. male as food/prey

2. male as derived resource or processed product

3. wild female member of genus

3. bred or domesticated female member of genus

3. female as food/prey

3. female as derived resource or processed product

 

 

-KV- ‘QUALITY OR PROPERTY OF MATTER’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of quality/property of matter

same as INFORMAL stems except that degree of particular quality/property is unusual, abnormal, unexpected, or has been changed from expected norm

2. decrease in degree of quality/property of matter

3. increase in degree of quality/property of matter

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to organic-based substance

Same as above 3 stems referring to non-organic or synthetic substance

The stems of this root are commonly used with the SUF, EXD, FLC, PTW and Intensity affixes. 


-KW- ‘COLOR/HUE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. something having a color plus the color

same as INFORMAL stems but tinted/painted/stained, etc. to have other than its natural color

2. something light-colored plus the color

3. something dark-colored plus the color

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. something having a color

1. a color

2. something having a light color

2. a light color

3. something having a dark color

3. a dark color

NOTE: This stem patterns for the above root are a template for all other roots donating a specific color.

 

   -KY- ‘COFFEE PLANT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. genus of branched tree/bush and/or leaved plant

1. wood product

2. leaf

2. leaf product

3. bark

3. bark product

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wood

1. seed/fruit/nut

1. wood as resource

1. seed/fruit as food or resource

2. root

2. flower/blossom

2. root as food or resource

2. flower as food or resource

3. branch

3. sap

3. branch as resource

3. sap product/syrup

 

-K’-   ‘LIGHT / RADIANT ENERGY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. ray of sunlight

1. ray of radiant light or energy (non-solar)

2. the Sun / Sol

2. flame / “tongue” of fire

3. star

3. artificial source of light or energy

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. light from a ray of sunlight

1. heat from a ray of sunlight

1. ray of light (non-solar)

1. ray of energy/heat (non-solar)

2. the Sun as light source

2. the Sun as energy/heat source

2. ray of firelight

2. flame as energy/heat source

3. starlight

3. energy of a star

3. lamp light / light from artificial source

3. energy/heat from artificial energy/heat source

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: fire, sunshine, illuminate, light a fire, flare (up), lamp, fireplace; galaxy, heater, to warm, warmth, to melt, to smelt, to expose [via illumination], burn

 

-Kh- ‘SOCIAL INTERRELATION/INTERACTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. act/state of social interaction/interrelation + benefits, consequences, or implications thereof

1. expected/natural role of member of a relationship + benefits, consequences, or implications thereof

2. act/state of “dominant” or initiating partner in social interaction/relationship

2. expected/natural role of “dominant” or initiating partner of a relationship + benefits, consequences, or implications thereof

3. act/state of “passive” or secondary/complementary partner in social interaction/relationship

3. expected/natural role of “passive” or secondary or complementary partner of a relationship + benefits, consequences, or implications thereof

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems with focus on act/state of social interaction or interrelation itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on benefits, consequences, or implications of act/state of social interaction or interrelation

Same as above 3 stems with focus on act/state of social interaction or interrelation itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on benefits, consequences, or implications of act/state of social interaction or interrelation

Note:  The above root (and those roots which follow the same pattern of stems) are likely to be used in conjunction with the various Valence categories (see Section 6.2) to specify the exact nature of the relationship between the parties involved.  Note also that, for relationships where the parties are acting in equivalent roles or positions of equal stature (i.e., no “dominant” vs. “passive” roles), use of Stems 2 and 3 above would be inapplicable.


-KhW- ‘PURPLE’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

 

-L-   ‘SPEAK/VOICE/ORAL SOUND/INTERPRETATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. vocal utterance / oral sound; utter

1. meaning or interpretation of vocal utterance; to mean or signify

2. talk / speak / spoken utterance [parole]

2. meaning or interpretation of word; to mean or signify

3. rhetorical utterance / express [langue]

3. meaning or interpretation of sentence or phrase; to mean or signify

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to physical production of sound

same as above 3 stems referring to communication/conveying of content

same as above 3 stems referring to objective meaning, signification or denotation

same as above 3 stems referring to subjective interpretation, connotation or “impact”

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: voice, (a) language, linguistic(s), yell, shout, cry, bark/meow/bleat/neigh, etc., [vocal] message, account, recount, story, tell, eloquence, glib(ness), smooth-talk, rhetoric, speech, dialect, slang

-LB-  DIMENSIONAL/SPATIO-TEMPORAL RELATIONS

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of (static) dimensional property (e.g., short/long)

same as INFORMAL stems but in reference to an applied contextual gestalt (e.g., the vicinity, the depths, the expanse, the interregnum, the surroundings, the perimeter, etc.)

2. dynamic decrease in degree of dimensional property (e.g., shorten/ing)

3. dynamic increase in degree of dimensional property (e.g., lengthen/ing)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems applied to spatial context

same as above 3 stems applied to temporal context

The stems of this root are commonly used with the SUF, EXD, FLC, PTW and Intensity affixes. 
EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: big/large, small/little, shrink, expand, grow, diminish, huge, immense, tiny, enormous, shallow

 

-LBW-   ‘WHALE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-LC- ‘PROXIMITY/DISTANCE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

 

-LCh- ‘UPRIGHT POSITION OR ORIENTATION/VERTICALITY/PERPENDICULAR/PROTRUSION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. upright/erect position or orientation (relative to long axis of object) / stand (up)

1. vertical (i.e., parallel to gravity or plane of earth’s surface)

2.  stick up or out/ protrude

2. occupying position of maximum contrast to a position of repose; position of maximum “alertness” or readiness or action

3. perpendicular / position or orientation at right angles  to background firmament (relative to long axis of object); be or stand on end

3. stretch(ed) outward; pull(ed) or configure(d) to maximum height perpendicular to background firmament

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems with focus on the position itself as an abstract concept

same as above 3 stems with focus on object/thing in that position

same as above 3 stems with focus on the position itself as an abstract concept

same as above 3 stems with focus on object/thing in that position

 

LC’-  ‘PLANARITY/FLATNESS RELATIVE TO OBJECT ITSELF’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-


--  ‘WIDTH (= “SLENDERNESS”)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

--  ‘GIRTH (= 2-DIMENSIONAL X-PLANAR DIMENSION)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LČ’-   ‘SHARPNESS/DULLNESS OF AN EDGE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LD- ‘AMPLITUDE (= 2-DIMENSIONAL Z-PLANAR DIMENSION)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LDh-  ‘ “REACH” (= 2-DIMENSIONAL Y-PLANAR DIMENSION)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LDR-    ‘BOAR’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-LDW-  ‘CHEETAH’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-LF-  ‘DEPTH’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LFW-    ‘FROG’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-LG-  ‘INTERVAL/GAP’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LGW-    ‘OTTER’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-LK- ‘HEIGHT (= “TALLNESS” – RELATIVE TO GRAVITY) The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LK’- ‘STRAIGHTNESS/LINEARITY RELATIVE TO OBJECT ITSELF’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LKh- master/servant — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-LKhW-  mint — The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

 

-LL- ‘ONE/UNITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. one

1. single entity / single / singular

2. (something) alone/lone/sole

2. (something) isolated

3. (something) unique

3. 9something) independent / self-reliant / self-sufficient

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. unit (in terms of being unduplicated, copied, or their being no other instance/example thereof)

1. unify/unite; unit (in terms of being indivisible)

Same as above 3 stems in terms of there being no other instance/example thereof

Same as above 3 stems in terms of entity being indivisible

2. alone/lone/sole (in terms of being unduplicated, copied, or their being no other instance/example thereof)

2. alone/lone/sole (in terms of being indivisible)

3. unique (in terms of being unduplicated, copied, or their being no other instance/example thereof)

3. unique (in terms of being indivisible)

EXAMPLES OF MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  individual(ity), solitude, lonely, loneliness

 

 -LM-  ‘MUSIC’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. musical note or tone / produce [i.e., play] musical note or tone [sound + its playing]

Same as INFORMAL stems except that they apply to the production of song, i.e., vocal music or for voice with musical accompaniment

2. consciously select musical note [for purpose of composition] + sound of note

3. a musical beat or measure [sound + its playing]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. sound of musical note or tone

1. producing/playing of musical note or tone

2. sound of selected musical note

2. conscious selection of musical note [for purpose of composition]

3. sound of a musical beat or measure

3. production/playing of a musical beat or measure

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: piece of music, melody, music [abstract concept], composition, musical instrument, musician, composer, rhythm, band, orchestra, song

 

-LMZ-    ‘DOLPHIN’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-LN-  ‘front [relative to directional orientation or primary interface]’ The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.

-LNTW-    ‘NIGHTINGALE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-LP-    ‘SPEED/VELOCITY/ACCELERATION’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LP’-  ‘VOLUME (= 3-DIMENSIONAL SIZE)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LPhW-    ‘WALRUS’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-LQ-  ‘SHARPNESS/DULLNESS OF A POINT’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LQ’-    ‘RECTILINEAR/POLYHEDRAL/STRAIGHT-ANGLED’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

 

-LQh- ‘CLASSES OF WATERLIFE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. skeletal/vertebral waterlife form

Same as INFORMAL holistic stems referring to tamed, domesticated, bred, etc. individual

2. exoskeletal/arthropod form

3. soft-bodied waterlife form

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. jellyfish-like lifeform

1. gilled/finned fish

Same INFORMAL complementary stems referring to tamed, pet, domesticated, bred, etc. individual

2. crustacean

2. “non-standard”-shaped fish (e.g., ray, eel, squid, octopus, etc.)

3. shellfish

3. sea mammal (e.g., whale, seal, walrus, etc.)

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  fisherman, whale hunter, aquarium, fishery, fish hatchery

 

-LR- ‘SPHERICALNESS/ROUNDNESS’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

 

--  ‘CLASSES OF MAMMAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. marsupial

Same as INFORMAL stems referring to tamed, domesticated, pet, bred, etc. individual

2. egg-laying mammal, ovoviviparous mammal

3. placental mammal

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to male

Same as above 3 stems referring to female



-LS-  ‘FLATNESS/LEVELNESS (RELATIVE TO GRAVITY)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LSKW-    ‘ANTELOPE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

--    ‘PERIPHERY/CIRCLE/RING’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

 

-LT-   ‘WRITE/INSCRIBE/DOCUMENT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. inscribe [= make written symbol]; written symbol

1. written record / thing containing writing

2. write message; written content

2. document

3. “write” [= compose via writing] / to author

3.  “page” of writing / “page” of a written work [“page” = visible interface]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to physical act of inscription

same as above 3 stems referring to communication/conveying of content

same as above 3 stems referring to the physical document

same as above 3 stems referring to the content

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: book, treatise, manuscript, author, archive

 

-LTW-  ‘GOAT’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-LT’-  ‘PERPENDICULARITY/UPRIGHTNESS’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

 

-LTh- ‘DEITY / SPIRITUAL ENTITY / SUPERNATURAL ENTITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. (a) spirit / supernatural entity

1. angel

2. deity / god / “overseer” spirit

2. God / Supreme Being / Creator deity

3. demon

3. the Devil / Satan

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to male gender

same as above 3 stems referring to female gender

same as above 3 stems referring to male gender

same as above 3 stems referring to female gender


--    ‘CONCAVITY/DEPRESSION’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LŢR-    ‘TURTLE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-LV-    ‘ “EVEN” (= SMOOTH-SURFACED IN PLANAR CONTEXT)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LX-    ‘CONVEXITY/ROTUNDITY’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LXW-    ‘RABBIT’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-LXh- ‘BROWN’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-LZ-     ‘ “EVEN” (= SMOOTH-EDGED IN LINEAR CONTEXT)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-

-LZW-    ‘GOOSE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

 

-- ‘SPECIALIZED VOLITIONAL BODILY SOUNDS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. non-linguistic sound made by mouth (i.e., tongue, teeth, lips)

1.  consonant

2. non-linguistic sound made from throat or vocal chords

2. vowel

3. sound made by non-oral, non-vocal part of the body

3. phoneme

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to act of producing the sound

Same as above 3 stems referring to the sound itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to act of producing the sound

Same as above 3 stems referring to the sound itself

SSD Derivations from Informal Stem 1:  1) whistle 2) hum 3) “raspberry” 4) hoot/whoop 5) non-avian animal call 6) bird call 7) scream 8) click-sound (i.e., w/ ingressive airstream) 9) non-phonemic consonantal gibberish sound

SSD Derivations from Informal Stem 3:  1) slap 2) rubbing sound 3) footfall (--> stomp) 4) snap of fingers 5) finger tap 6) toe/foot tap 7) suction-based sound (e.g., “armpit fart”) 8) knuckle crack  9) other joint cracking

-LŻW-    ‘GILA MONSTER’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-- ‘ELASTICITY / STRETCH CAPACITY’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -LB-


-Ļ- ‘BREATHE/RESPIRATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. respire/inhale or exhale; a breath

1. inflate (w/ air)

2. yawn

2. blow (passage of air under pressure through narrow opening)

3. pump (by air)

3. suck/suckle/siphon

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on external/internal transfer of air/gas

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physiological action or motion involved

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on external/internal transfer of air/gas

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physiological action or motion involved

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  breathe, pant, gasp, suffocate, suffocation, asphyxiate, asphyxiation, drown

-ĻKh- ‘ECRU [color]’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-ĻĻ- flabbiness <--> cohesiveness / compactness — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum

-ĻM- springiness/spring <--> inertness/immobility — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

 

-ĻN-     ‘CLASSES OF LAND/AIR ANIMAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. mammal

Same as INFORMAL stems referring to domesticated, tamed, bred, pet, etc. individual

2. non-mammalian, non-avian, non-reptilian animal, i.e.,  insect/arthropod/arachnid/worm/mollusk

3. avian or reptilian lifeform

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. insect

1. mollusc

2. worm

2. bird

3. arthropod/arachnid

3. reptile


-ĻP- sponginess <--> stiffness/rigidity — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

-ĻP’- buoyancy — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.between the two extremes indicated.

-ĻPh- ‘OCHRE [color]’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-ĻQ- Tin  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-  

-ĻQ’- spreadability — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

-ĻQh- deformability / “dentability” — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

-ĻW- elasticity <--> stiffness/rigidity — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

 

-M- ‘APPEARANCE/SEMBLANCE/IMPRESSION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. appear to be/seem/look as if/give (off) the impression of; appearance/semblance/impression

1. ostensible/ostensibly

2. on the face of it, on first blush

2. resemble, look like

3. on the surface/superficially/seemingly

3. façade, veneer

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on thing giving off the impression or appearance

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on affective impression to the observer

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on thing giving off the impression or appearance

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on affective impression to the observer

 

-MB- ‘GEOGRAPHICAL/GEOPOLITICAL ELEMENTS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. geographical feature or element

1. geopolitical feature or element

2. geographical area / “land”

2. geopolitical area / “land” or “country”

3. natural piece of territory

3. (piece of) property

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on geophysical feature or element

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus as natural habitat

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus as political entity

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on political boundaries/borders


--   ‘DURABILITY/FRAGILITY’ (= CAPACITY FOR BEING DAMAGED) The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -KV-.follows that of the root -KV-.

-MF-  ‘GLOVE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-MG- ‘PEACH’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

 

-MK-     ‘ASPECTS/METHODS OF INGESTION/FEEDING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1.   bite/bite down; a bite

1.    place in mouth

2.   masticate/ruminate/chew (on); act of chewing [naturally iterative root]

2.   swallow

3.   suck (on); act of sucking

3.    taste = roll around in mouth/on palate

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same w/ focus on phys process/mouth movement

same w/ focus on the morsel, bit, or amount of liquid being consumed

same w/ focus on phys process/mouth movement

same w/ focus on the morsel, bit, or amount of liquid being consumed

Derivations:  gnaw, snap w/ jaws at, sip, nip, gulp, devour, nibble, graze, munch, bolt, shovel in, savor


-MK’- Silicon    —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-MKh- ‘BEIGE/TAN’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-MKhW- ‘MAUVE’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-ML-  ‘FOOT’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PR-. -->   SSD Derivatives:  heel, ball of foot, upper side of foot, arch, plantar fascia, achilles tendon

 

-MM-   ‘NUCLEAR FAMILY MEMBER’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. nuclear family member

1. non-sanguine family member

2. male family member

2. non-sanguine male family member

3. female family member

3. non-sanguine female family member

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. parent

1. child/offspring

1. step-parent

1. step-child

2. father

2. boy child / son

2. step-father

2. step-son

3. mother

3. girl child / daughter

3. step-mother

3. step-daughter

 

-MN-   ‘AWE / BE OR FEEL IMPRESSED / HUMBLENESS IN FACE OF SOMETHING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. non-volitional (i.e., affective) experience of awe; feel awe [state + content]

Same as INFORMAL stems except referring to a formal/institutionalized/symbolic expressions of awe, i.e., feeling of worship(fulness).

2. humbleness caused by non-volitional experience of state or feeling of awe

3. cause or causal circumstance for non-volitional state/feeling or awe

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on process itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on experiential state/feeling itself

 

-MP-   ‘SMELL/ODOR’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. to smell (= use olfactory sense) + odor smelled

1. examine or inspect via smelling + odor smelled

2. nose (olfactory organ + facial proboscis)

2. device used to detect presence of odor or gas / olfactory instrument + odor detected

3. imagine a smell (act + imagined odor)

3. create or manufacture an odor + odor created

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. to smell (= use olfactory sense)

1. whiff of odor, a smell; to give off a whiff of odor

1. examine or inspect via smelling

1. odor detected via inspection or examination

2. nose (= olfactory organ)

2. nose (= facial proboscis)

2. device used to detect presence of odor or gas / olfactory instrument

2. odor detected via olfactory instrument

3. imagine an odor

3. an imagined odor

3. create or manufacture an odor

3. manufactured odor

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: sniff, aroma, “bouquet”, perfume, stench


-MPY-  squash — The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-MP’- ‘ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS/FORMS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. column/pillar

1. strut/buttress

2. “side”/wall (external)

2. partition

3. floor [= base/ground]

3. roof

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to physical shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose

same as above 3 stems referring to physical shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose

 

-MQ- romantic love relationship — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-MQhW-  date (fruit) — The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-MR-  ‘TRANSFER OF POSSESSION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. temporary, circumstantial, incidental direct transfer of possession (i.e., give / take)

1. quasi-permanent or official transfer of possession (i.e., rendering/reception; render, receive)

2. temporary, circumstantial, incidental indirect transfer (i.e., to leave for someone / to take based on discernment of availability)

2. quasi-permanent or official transfer (i.e., bestowal or bequest/acquisition; bestow/acquire)

3. temporary, circumstantial, incidental transfer over distance (i.e., to bring something / to leave with something)

3. deliver/take ownership of

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. give, lend

1. take, borrow

1. donate; donation

1. receive; reception

2. leave (something for someone), make available

2. get, obtain

2. leave to heir

2. inherit; inheritance

3. thing given, gift (given)

3. thing taken, gift (taken)

3. bestow; bequest

3. acquire; acquisition

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  procure(ment), requisition, accept (= willingly receive)

 

--   ‘TEN’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 10; to be 10 in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make ten-faceted / having 10 uses or aspects / deci- / deca- / tenfold

3. tenth one in a sequence; be/make tenth in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 10 times the number of something; multiply by 10

1. atenth / divide by 10 or into 10 parts

2. 10 times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 10 times

2. be of or make into 10 parts; separate(d) into 10 parts

3. to the 10th power; raise to the 10th power

3. to the negative 10th power; to divide by the 10th power of

 

-MS-   ‘VALUE/WORTH/PRICE/COST’
(Often used in conjunction with various Quantifying and Modulative affixes from Sections 5.5.6 and 5.5.5 to show relative degree of value within context)

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. be valuable/worthwhile, have value/worth [in terms of usefulness, convenience, efficacy, service, applicability]

1. cost appraisal, assessment, estimate, quote

2. be valuable/worthwhile, have value/worth [in terms of personal desire or emotional attachment]

2. cost, expense, expenditure [what is (to be) given up or released in exchange for something, either a commercial or non-commercial context]

3. be valuable/worthwhile, have value/worth [in terms of financial benefit or gain, profit, or remuneratively]

3. rate (of payment); formula/terms for determining payment

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on intrinsic value

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on actual value (i.e., degree to which the intrinsic value can actually be utilized, consumed or manifested)

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to cost quoted or agreed to

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to actual payment

SSD Derivatives for FORMAL Stem 2: 1) fee/toll or service charge 2) tithe 3) duty/tariff/levy 4) ransom 5) tax 6) dues 5) wage(s) 8) fare  9) price/charge [in money or legal tender]


--:  ‘irregular/amorphous outline’ The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -GM-.

-MT- parent-child relationship — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

 

-MT’-‘CLASSES OF ANIMAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. animal of land or air (i.e., “terroid”)

Same as INFORMAL holistic stems but domesticated, tamed, captive, or bred

2. waterlife (i.e., “aquoid”)

3. amphibian

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems but domesticable

same as above 3 stems but undomesticable

same as above FORMAL stems but as pets or tamed

same as above FORMAL stems but as resource (i.e., food, breeding stock, etc.)

 

-MTh- ‘SOIL/GROUND/DIRT (MIXED ORGANIC + MINERAL)’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. dirt/ground/soil [=substance + function as substrate/firmament]

1. peat

2. mud

2. dirt(y)/filth(y) [= soiled, unclean]

3. ground cover [organic-based, e.g., carpet of leaves]

3. mulch/compost/fertilizer

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to substance itself

same as above 3 stems referring to function as substrate/firmament

same as above 3 stems referring to substance itself

same as above 3 stems referring to function as substrate/firmament

 

--  ‘AUTUMN/FALL’ — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -MX-.

-MV- ‘middle, center (as seen perpendicular to long axis of entity) The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.

-MW-   ‘TIGHTNESS/SLACK’ (= TAUTNESS) The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -KV-.

 

-MX- ‘SEASON’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. season, time of year

1.  social behavior/custom associated with particular season (e.g., celebration, recreation, vacation, etc.)

2. weather associated w/ particular season / seasonal weather

2. weather-determined practice/behavior/custom associated with particular season (e.g., migration, mating, nesting, hibernation, etc.)

3. cyclic state/condition of flora/fauna associated with a particular season

3. practice/behavior/custom relating to maintenance/upkeep of crops, game and other material resources associated with a particular season (e.g., foraging, hunting, planting, harvest, storage, etc.)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to the timeframe itself relative to the greater annual cycle or calendar year

Same as above 3 stems referring to the context of the season itself irrespective of the greater annual cycle

Same as above 3 stems referring to the timeframe itself relative to the greater annual cycle or calendar year

Same as above 3 stems referring to the context of the season itself irrespective of the greater annual cycle


-MXW-  cucumber — The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-MXh- ‘HORIZONTAL SUPPORTING SURFACE AGAINST GRAVITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. “ground”/firmament

1. floor

2. table-like horizontal flat object / slab

2. table

3. shelf-like flat object

3. shelf

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to physical gestalt/shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose as functional supporting surface against gravity

same as above 3 stems referring to physical gestalt/shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose as functional supporting surface against gravity

 

-MY-   ‘GRATITUDE/THANKFULNESS/PRAISE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. thank(s) / offer gratitude due to unexpected favor or convenience performed

1. praise

2. thank(s) / offer gratitude due to being relieved/rescued from negative situation

2. gratefulness; feeling or manifestation of being beholden to someone or something [feeling is justified and an honor to be feeling]

3. thank(s) / offer gratitude within ironic circumstances or merely as a courtesy, i.e., where expectation of thanks is for an unwanted, unnecessary, or purely symbolic act or required little or no effort on doer’s part

3. feeling or manifestation of being beholden or obliged to someone or something [feeling is resented and unwanted]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems with focus on intent to convey gratitude

same as above 3 stems with focus on actual display of gratitude

same as above 3 stems with focus on desire/intent to convey the feeling

same as above 3 stems with focus on actual display of the feeling

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  worship, indebted(ness)


-MZ- ‘REMEMBER/RECALL/MEMORY/RECORD’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. memory; remember (= recall) [whether unwilled/affective or self -willed/voluntary]

1. trace/track/vestige

2. retain / retention of something past into present

2. memorial (object/action formally recognizing or acknowledging something/someone past)

3. remember [= commit to memory] / memorize

3. to record / a record

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. a memory itself (i.e., the content thereof)

1. faculty of memory/recall (i.e., the process of using one’s memory)

same as above 3 stems with focus on that which the physical manifestation memorializes or gives evidence/remembrance of

same as above 3 stems with focus on the object/event/physical manifestation itself which conveys the memory or record

2. a memory retained or kept fresh (i.e., the content thereof)

2. a memory retained or kept fresh (i.e., the process thereof)

3. thing remembered or memorized [=event/act/situation/state, etc. committed to memory]

3. process of committing something to memory

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  recollect(ion), remind, memorize, memento, monument, archive, commemorate, commemoration, souvenir/keepsake, relic, to bear in mind, ponder/relish a memory, sear into one’s memory

 

-- ‘GENDER’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. gender

1. psycho-sexual identity

2. neuter

2. asexual / psychologically neuter

3. androgynous

3. sexual preference/orientation

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. male (anatomically)

1. female (anatomically)

1. masculine (psycho-behaviorally)

1. feminine (psycho-behaviorally)

2. sterile (incapable of procreation)

2. genderless (neither male nor female anatomically)

2. celibate/chaste

2. asexual; devoid of sexual desire

3. androgyne / androgynous (difficultyfor others to determine gender)

3. hermophrodite / hermophroditic (anatomically both male & female)

3. sexual preference or orientation psychologically

3. sexual orientation in actuality (as manifested)

SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 3:  homosexual, bisexual, heterosexual, bisexual with preference for heterosexuality, bisexual with preference for homosexuality, homosexual with preference for functioning in male role, homosexual with preference for functioning in female role

 


-N- ‘exterior, outer/external part of, outside, “skin”’ The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.

-NC’-   ‘BANANA’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-NCh-   ‘FIG’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-NChW-   ‘DUCK’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

--  ‘CHERRY’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-NÇW-  ‘SWAN’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-NČ’-    ‘COCONUT’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-h-     ‘TANGERINE’    The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

 

-ND- ‘QUESTION/INQUIRY/ANSWER/RESPONSE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. question & answer [statement requesting information + the answer/reply/response thereto]

1. inquire/inquiry + answer

2. query/investigate [investigative act + discovery made]

2. research + findings

3. ponder/introspect [self-questioning + conclusion]

3. analyze + results of analysis

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. question [statement requesting information]

1. response/reply/answer [information desired or given]

1. inquire/inquiry

1. answer [i.e., result of inquiry]

2. query

2. answer (to query) [i.e., cause/reason for what is being looked into or investigated]

2. research

2. finding(s)/discovery made via research

3. ponder/introspect; to question oneself mentally

3. conclusion [(desired) result of self-analysis]

3. analyze

3. conclusion/results of analysis

Morphological derivations:  problem; solution; solve; resolution; resolve; elucidate


-NDR-    ‘FOX’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-NDW-  ‘MOOSE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-NDh-     ‘PINEAPPLE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-NL-  ‘HARD/SOFT (= MALLEABILITY)’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -KV-.

--      ‘PLUM’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-NM-     ‘OLIVE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-NN-     ‘ORANGE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-NR-:  ‘circle/ellipse’ The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -GM-.

--  ‘SPIDER’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-NT’-      ‘LEMON’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

 -NS-   ‘SEVEN’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 7 / a septet; to be 7 in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make seven-faceted / having 7 uses or aspects / septi- / sevenfold

3. seventh one in a sequence; be/make seventh in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 7 times the number of something; to septuple / multiply by 7

1. a seventh / divide by 7 or into 7 parts

2. 7 times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 7 times

2. be of or make into 7 parts; separate(d) into 7 parts

3. to the 7th power; raise to the 7th power

3. to the negative 7th power; to divide by the 7th power of


-NST- ‘RECLINE / PRONE POSITION OR ORIENTATION / HORIZONTALITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. recline(d) / prone position (relative to long axis of object) / lie (down) / lay (out)

1. horizontal (relative to gravity or plane of the earth’s surface) / orientation perpendicular to direction of gravity

2. recumbent position / position of relaxation relative to gravity --> sprawl, loll

2. occupying position of maximum repose or having a positional or dynamic orientation based on the path of least resistance relative to gravity

3. flush / flat against / position or orientation level with some flat or even firmament / lay flat

3. flatten(ed); collapse(d) or configure(d) to minimum height perpendicular to background firmament

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems with focus on the position itself

same as above 3 stems with focus on object/thing in that position

same as above 3 stems with focus on the position itself

same as above 3 stems with focus on object/thing in that position

 

-NSW-   ‘CHICKEN’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-- ‘rear, back part of [relative to directional orientation or primary interface]’ The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.

 

-NT-    ‘HEAR(ING)/SOUND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. hear a sound; aural faculty + sound heard

1. listen to a (specific) sound / discern aurally a (specific) sound

2. ear (aural organ + physical part of body, i.e., Spanish oído + oreja)

2. aural instrument / device for detecting sound waves + sound detected

3. imagine a sound (act + sound)

3. create or manufacture a sound + sound created

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. to hear; aural faculty

1. sound

1. listen

1. (selected) sound

2. ear (aural organ)

2. ear (body part)

2. aural instrument

2. sound detected via aural instrument

3. imagine a sound / hear in one’s mind

3. imagined sound

3. create or manufacture a sound

3. sound created

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: speaker, megaphone, telephone, stereo, microphone, hearing aid


-NTh-     ‘PEAR’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-- close loving friendship — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-NV-     ‘PEACH’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-NW-     ‘APPLE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-NY-   ‘CHOICE/ALTERNATIVE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. choose/choice [from open selection]

1. select/pick [from limited selection]

2. prefer(ence)

2. alternative/option

3. settle (for)

3. vote [w/ CPT = elect]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act of choosing/preferring

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on choice or preference made

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act of choosing/preferring

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on choice or preference made


-NZ- marriage — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

--     ‘LIME’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

 

-Ň-   ‘(ONE) HUNDRED’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 100; to be a hundred in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make 100-faceted / having 100 uses or aspects / hundredfold

3. hundredth in a sequence; be/make hundredth in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 100 times the number of something; to multiply by 100

1. a hundredth / divide by 100 or into 100 parts

2. 100 times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 100 times

2. be of or make into 100 parts; separate(d) into 100 parts

3. to the 100th power; raise to the 100th power

3. to the negative 100th power; to divide by the 100th power of

-ŇC-  ‘TICK’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-ŇÇ-  ‘WATERBUG’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’


-ŇČ- ‘NON-SANGUINE RELATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of godparent-godchild relationship

1. adoptive family member

2. male member of godparent-godchild relationship

2. male adoptive family member

3. female member of godparent-godchild relationship

3. female adoptive family member

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. godparent

1. godchild

1. adoptive parent

1. adopted child

2. godfather

2. godson

2. adoptive father

2. adopted son

3. godmother

3. goddaughter

3. adoptive mother

3. adopted daughter


-ŇČhW-  bamboo — The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-


-ŇF-:  ‘sliver-moon shaped’ The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -GM-.

 

-ŇG- ‘TEMPORARY ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. momentaneous or short-lived atmospheric phenomenon [physical occurrence + manifestation/effect]

1. zone of high or low barometric pressure relative to surrounding pressure

2. flash of lightning + peal of thunder [electrical phenomenon + associated sound]

2. cold or warm air front

3. cloud [in the sky]

3. eye of a storm

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. momentaneous or short-lived atmospheric phenomenon [physical occurrence]

1. manifestation/effect of momentaneous or short-lived atmospheric phenomenon

1. low pressure zone

1. high pressure zone

2. flash of lightning

2. peal of thunder

2. cold air front

2. warm air front

3. cloud [in the sky] – physical occurrence

3. impact/effect of cloud [in the sky], e.g., its hiding of the sun, it causing zero visibility as a plane flies through it, etc.

3. eye of storm [physical occurrence]

3. short-lived calm/still conditions associated with the eye of a storm

 

-ŇGR-   ‘BABOON’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŇGW-    ‘CHIMPANZEE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)


-ŇGY- ‘STICKY/ADHESIVE MATERIAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sticky substance or material; to stick / to be mired in

1. adhesive substance material; adhere/stick (via adhesive)

2. goo / ooze / slime

2. glue / liquid adhesive

3. sap / resin

3. cement / mortar / grout

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to organic-based substance

Same as above 3 stems referring to non-organic or synthetic substance

Same as above 3 stems referring to organic-based substance

Same as above 3 stems referring to non-organic or synthetic substance

 

-ŇK- ‘ARCHITECTURAL COMPONENTS (ORNAMENTAL/SPECIALIZED)’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. tower

1. window opening

2. dome

2. doorway

3. spire/steeple

3. balcony/terrace

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to physical shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose

same as above 3 stems referring to physical shape/form

same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose

 

-ŇKR-    ‘LION’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŇKW-  ‘COW’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŇKY-   ELEMENTARY PARTICLES/FORCES OF PHYSICS (FERMIONS & BOSONS)

INFORMAL

FORMAL

1. fermion (+ anti-fermion)

1. boson + its fundamental interaction or associated “force”

2. quark (+ anti-quark)

2. “string” (from string theory) + its associated vibration

3. lepton (+ anti-lepton)

3. acceleron (from dark energy theory) + dark energy

COMPLEMENTARY STEMS

COMPLEMENTARY STEMS

1. fermion

1. anti-fermion

1. boson

1. fundamental “force” (e.g., electromagnetism, strong, weak, gravity, dark energy)

2. quark

2. anti-quark

2. “string” (from string theory)

2. vibration of “string” (from string theory)

3. lepton

3. anti-lepton

3. acceleron (hypothetical particle associated with theories of dark energy)

3. dark energy (i.e., counter-gravitational “force” that is accelerating the expansion of the universe

The following important notes apply to use of the above stems:

P1/S2, P2/S2, and P3/S2 all have the following derivatives using the SSD1 suffix indicating a quark’s “flavor” and “color”:
1) up
2) charm
3) top
4) red
5) green
6) blue
7) bottom
8) strange
9) down

Informal stems P1/S3, P2/S3, and P3/S3 all have the following derivatives using the SSD1 suffix identifying the particular type of lepton (or anti-lepton):
1) muon
2) charged lepton (i.e., non-neutrino lepton)
3) tau lepton, tauon
4)
5) electron
6) electron neutrino
7) muon neutrino
8) tau neutrino
9) neutrino (i.e., any of the three types)

Formal stems P1/S1, P2/S1, and P3/S1 all have the following derivatives using the SSD1 suffix identifying the particular type of boson and/or its associated interaction or “force” :
1) graviton/gravity
2) weak gauge boson (i.e., either the W+, the W-, or the Z) / the weak interaction or force
3) photon [as associated with electrical phenomenon] / electricity
4) W+ boson / the weak interaction or force as mediated by the W+ boson (use PLV1/1 suffix to indicate the W- boson)
5) photon / electromagnetism
6) Z-zero boson / the weak interaction or force as mediated by the Z-zero boson
7) photon [as associated with magnetic phenomenon] / magnetism
8) Higgs boson / Higgs mechanism
9) gluon / the strong interaction or color force

Use of the SSD2/5 suffix with the above stems identifies the supersymetrical partner of the particular particle (i.e., its “sparticle” counterpart), e.g., photino, gluino, gravitino, slepton, squark, sneutrino, etc.

It should be noted that when using the above stems to refer to forces (e.g., gravity or electromagnetism), one must realize that the individual stems refer to a particular instance of force/interaction from a single (i.e., particular) particle.  One must inflect the stem appropriately as for Configuration, Association, Perspective, etc., when speaking of “the force of gravity” or “electricity” as a generic concept.


-ŇKh- ‘WHOLE NUMBER/INTEGER’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a (whole) number, numeral, digit, integer

Same as INFORMAL stems but applied to formal, authoritative, permanent context as per Section 3.7

2. having more than one aspect; multifaceted

3. numerical series/sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. multiply (by)

1. divide (by)

2. consisting of more than instance; multiple instance(s) of

2. having more than one part; consisting of parts; non-unitary; non-unified

3. exponential/logarithmic progression

3. negative exponential/logarithmic progression

 

-ŇN-  ‘ANT’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-ŇQh-  ‘COCKROACH’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-ŇŘ-  ‘TERMITE’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-ŇS-: ‘square/rectangle/rhombus’ The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -GM-.

-ŇŠW-    ‘GORILLA’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŇTh-  ‘TROPICAL RAINY SEASON’ — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -MX-.

-ŇV-  ‘GENERIC CRAWLING BUG’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-ŇW-  ‘FLEXIBILITY/RIGIDITY’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -KV-.

-ŇX- temporary or youthful romantic dalliance/lovers (with or without involving sex) — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-ŇXh-  ‘SPRING’ — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -MX-.

-ŇZ- ‘oil (fatty liquid derived from plants/animals)’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŇŽ-  ‘BEETLE’ The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -FŢ-  ‘INSECT’

-P-    [The CARRIER Root – see Section 9.3]

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. [carrier stem representing animate being]

 

 

 

2. [carrier stem representing inanimate entity]

3. [carrier stem representing abstract referent]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. [carrier:  human]

1. [carrier:  non-human animate being]

2. [carrier: tangible/physical entity]

2. [carrier:  intangible/subjective entity, e.g., thought, emotion, sensation, etc.]

3. [carrier:  place name]

3. [carrier:  abstract concept]

 

-PC-    ‘MARITAL/SPOUSAL RELATIONSHIP’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1.  state of marriage / marital state / state of being married

1. spouse

2. act of infidelity / extramarital liaison / to be unfaithful / to betray spouse

2. extramarital sex partner / mistress or gigolo

3.  betrothal / engagement; be betrothed, be engaged

3. fiancé(e) / being a fiancé(e)

 

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1.  formal/legal state of marriage

1. emotional bond of love/fidelity underlying marriage

1. husband

1. wife

2. physical act of infidelity/betrayal

2. breaking of emotional bond underlying marriage

2. gigolo, kept man (male equivalent of mistress)

2. mistress

3. formal/legal status of being betrothed/engaged

3. emotional bond of love/fealty underlying betrothal/engagement

3. fiancé

3. fiancée

 

-PC’-  ‘embarrassment at being unable to perform a task or activity as expected’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PCh-  ‘feeling flustered at not knowing how to react or what to think’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PÇ- ‘generic or oblique 3-dimensional range of motion / 3-dimensional pervasive movement / movement throughout or within 3-D volume.’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-PÇT-  cotton The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-PÇW- melon The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

--  ‘repugnance, repellant feeling, disgust’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PČ’-  ‘feeling of disappointment/let-down at one’s own actions/behavior’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK- 

-h-  ‘frustration; feeling of angry helplessness’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-


-hW-  cork The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-PF-  ‘depression / be or feel depressed’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PG-  ‘swooning, feeling of faintness due to emotional overload’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PJ-  ‘feeling of disappointment at being letdown by another’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-


 

-PK-   ‘EXPERIENCE / UNDERGO A STATE OR FEELING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. non-volitional (i.e., affective) experience of a state/feeling/emotion; feel (an) emotion [state + content]

Same as INFORMAL stems except referring to a formal/institutionalized/symbolic expressions of the particular emotion.

2. act or action caused by non-volitional experience of state or feeling

3. cause or causal circumstance for non-volitional state/feeling

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on process itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on experiential state/feeling itself

 

-PK’-  ‘bother, annoyance at self due to one’s own actions/behavior’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PKh-  ‘humiliation’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PL-  ‘regret, repining, ruefulness’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PLW- ‘BURGUNDY [color]’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-- ‘SHIRT/BLOUSE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-PM-  ‘agitation/disquietude’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PN- ‘woe, despair, desolation’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PNY-  grape The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-PP-  ‘hysteria/loss of control’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PP’- sexual partners — The stems of this root are patterned the same as the root -Kh-.

-PPh-  ‘WINTER’ — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -MX-.

-PQ-    ‘worry / feel preoccupied’    The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PQ’-  ‘shock, reeling (e.g., from bad news or an unexpected discovery)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PQh-  ‘embarrassment due to social faux pas, behavioral misstep, or others seeing through one’s façade or airs’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

 

-PR-    ‘LEG’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. leg (as gestalt entity) [both physical body part and function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “arm” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. leg (as support) [both physical body part and function]

3. leg (as ambulator, extension, limb) [both physical body part and function]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. leg as physical body part

1. leg as manipulating body part (e.g., for kicking, stomping)

2. leg as or balancing appendage for body

2. leg as support against gravity

3. leg as limb/extension

3. leg as ambulatory organ



-- ‘BLUE’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-PS-    ‘sorrow, lamentation’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PSB- Aluminum/aluminium  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-PSF-    ‘INTERTWINED/INTERMINGLED/INTERMIXED POSITION/STATE’ [individual components inseparable/mixed/permanently combined] PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-;

-PSK ‘-X/+Y/-Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-PSL-  ‘0/-Y/+Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-PSQ’- Carbon  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL- 

-PŠQh- Calcium —   Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-PSR- ‘0/+Y/-Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-PST- ‘+X/+Y/-Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-PSW- ‘0/+Y/+Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

 

-PSTW-   ‘100 MILLION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 100 million; to be 100 million in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make 100 million-faceted / having 100 million uses or aspects / 100 million-fold

3. 100 millionth in a sequence; be/make quadrillionth in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 100 million times the number of something; to multiply by 100 million

1. a ten quadrillionth / divide by 100 million or into 100 million parts

2. 100 million times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 100 million times

2. be of or make into 100 million parts; separate(d) into 100 million  parts

3. to the 100 millionth power; raise to the 100 millionth power

3. to the negative 100 millionth power; to divide by the 100 millionth power of

 

--   ‘HAPPEN/OCCUR(ENCE)/MANIFEST/EVENT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. happen / occur / take place / to “pass”

1. step / act / action

2. manifest / be or make real / reify

2. phenomenon

3. event (spacio-temporal context)

3. incident

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical manifestation itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect or consequence

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical manifestation itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect or consequence

Various derivations from the above stems:  turn out, situation, chain of events, doings, process, phase, deed, result(s), consequence(s)


-PŠK-    ‘-X/-Y/-Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, + Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-PŠKh- Titanium    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-PSP’- Selenium      —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-    

-PŠQ’-Zirconium  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-PŠT-   ‘+X/-Y/-Z SPATIAL ORIENTATION/POSITION/DIRECTION W/ STEMS PATTERNED AFTER ROOT -F-; BASED ON THE FOLLOWING 3-DIMENSIONAL NOTATIONAL SCHEMA: -X = LEFT, +X = RIGHT, -Y = BEHIND, +Y = AHEAD, -Z = BELOW, +Z = ABOVE, 0 = LEVEL WITH OR IN LINE WITH SPECIFIC X, Y, OR Z AXIS’

-PT- ‘feel hurt/offended’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PT’-  ‘angst / weltschmertz’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PTh-  ‘stoicism/repression’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-- ‘ANGULAR STRUCTURE / CORNER’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. (two-dimensional) angle

Same as INFORMAL stems but in reference to permanent, authoritative, formal contexts or to social or analogical contexts

2. (three-dimensional) vertex

3. angle-based constraint on access or movement

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. interior angle of two-dimensional surface or analog

1. exterior corner/vertex of two-dimensional surface or analog

2. interior vertex/corner of three-dimensional space

2. exterior corner/vertex of three dimensional space

3. corner as constraint

3. corner as opportunity for choice of movement


-PW-  ‘material lust, avarice, greed (not sexual lust)’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

 

-PX-   ‘FOUR’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 4 / a quartet; to be 4 in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.4

2. be/make four-faceted / having 4 uses or aspects / quadri- / tetra- / fourfold

3. fourth one in a sequence; be/make fourth in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 4 times the number of something; to quadruple / multiply by 4

1. a fourth / divide by 4 or into 4 parts / quarter

2. 4 times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 4 times

2. be of or make into 4 parts; separate(d) into 4 parts

3. to the 4th power; raise to the 4th power

3. to the negative 4th power; to divide by the 4th power of


-PXh-    ‘stress / feel pressured’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-PY-  ‘bittersweet longing’ (Portuguese “saudade”) The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

 

-P’- ‘SEEK/SEARCH’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. search, seek, look for something unknown [i.e., location/existence uncertain]

1. hunt, hunt for [i.e., location/existence uncertain]

2. search, seek, look for something lost [i.e., something known to exist which is missing]

2. pursue, track down [i.e., existence certain, location surmisable]

3. inspect

3. quest / seek to accomplish/achieve something

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to search/quest itself

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to thing being looked for or sought

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to search/quest itself

same as above 3 stems w/ reference to thing being looked for or sought

Morphological Derivations: find, scan, reconnoiter, ransack, pry, ferret out, winnow through, fulfill a quest

 

-Ph-     ‘BRANCHED AND/OR LEAVED PLANT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. genus of branched tree/bush and/or leaved plant

1. wood product

2. leaf

2. leaf product

3. bark

3. bark product

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wood

1. seed/fruit/nut

1. wood as resource

1. seed/fruit as food or resource

2. root

2. flower/blossom

2. root as food or resource

2. flower as food or resource

3. branch

3. sap

3. branch as resource

3. sap product/syrup

SSD Suffix used as follows: 1) meat of fruit, 2) seed within fruit, 3) rind, 4) juice, 5) flavor, 6) odor of fruit, 5) oil, 8) [unassigned/specific to individual root] 9) fermented juice, i.e., wine

 

-PhW- ‘PINK’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

 

-Q-   ‘HIGHER ORDER ANIMAL LIFE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. higher order being (i.e., large bilateral vertebrate with discrete organs)

1. authorized or officially designated person or animal/beast

2. human, person

2. official, authorized person

3. non-human higher order being or animal, beast

3. pet or zoo animal/beast

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. male higher order being

1. female higher order being

1. authorized male animal/ or officially designated man or beast

1. authorized or officially designated woman or female animal/ beast

2. human male, man

2. human female, woman

2. official, authorized man

2. official, authorized woman

3. male higher order animal or beast

3. female higher order animal or beast

3. male pet or zoo animal/beast

3. female pet or zoo animal/beast

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: boy, girl, child [developmentally, not as offspring], population, group of people, crowd, mob, assembly, people, masses, elder, crone, adult, youth, adulthood, fetus, adolescent, zoo

-QC- ‘spice/herb/seasoning’ —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-QCh- ‘chalk’ —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL- 

 

--  ‘RESPIRATORY PAROXYSM’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) cough [act + sound]

FORMAL Stems for this root have the same meanings as INFORMAL stems except that the act/sound is deliberate (i.e., volitional)

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) sneeze [act + sound]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) hiccough [act + sound]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) cough [act]

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) cough [sound]

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) sneeze [act]

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) sneeze [sound]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) hiccough [act]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) hiccough [sound]

Morphological derivations:  clear throat, harrumph, hacking cough, cough up

 

-QF-  ‘FOOTWEAR’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-QFR- Radium    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-QFŘ- Molybdenum      —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-QFW- Bismuth  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

 

-QL- ‘LIQUID/FLUID’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. drop of liquid/fluid + liquid/fluid itself

1. Same as INFORMAL Stem No. 1 but referring to substance in an abnormal solid or gaseous state

2. drop of liquid/fluid as derived from other substance + the derived liquid subtance itself

2. thing/object composed of liquid + its function/purpose

3. source of a liquid/fluid

3. status of substance/compound as being or not being in a liquid/fluid state

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. drop of liquid/fluid

1. liquid/fluid subtance itself

1. substance in an abnormal solid (i.e., frozen) state

1. substance in an abnormal gaseous state (i.e., vapor)

2. drop of liquid/fluid as derived from other substance

2. the derived liquid/fluid subtance itself

2. object created, molded or manufactured from a liquid

2. function/purpose of object created, molded or manufactured from a liquid

3.  natural source of a liquid/fluid

3.  derived or artificially created source of a liquid or fluid

3. liquid/fluid state

3. viscous state (quasi-liquid but able to be deformed/shaped; semi-solid)

The stem pattern of this root also applies to the root FÒ- ‘liquid chemical’


-QLY- Manganese      — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-   

 

-QM- ‘COMPONENT OF BODY’S RESPIRATORY/CARDIO-VASCULATORY SYSTEM’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. heart

1. lung

2. vascular component

2. component of respiratory system

3. (an amount of) blood

3. oxygen

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the physical component(s) or tissue

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the function/purpose

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the physical component(s)/tissue

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the function/purpose

SSD Affix with Informal Stem 1:  ventricle, atrium, vein, coronary artery, capillary,
SSD Affix with Informal Stem 2:  blood vessel, vein, artery, capillary, aorta, vena cava
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 1: bronchus, bronchiolus, alveolar sac
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 21:  nasal cavity, trachea

 

-QN- ‘honey’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-          

-QQ- ‘interior, inner/internal part of, insides, innards’ The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.

-QR- ‘CELEBRATORY ACT/ CEREMONIAL RITE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. act of jubilation (as manifestation of personal joy, contentment, freedom, self-indulgence, etc.) [both act + cause/reason]

1. solemn act of commemoration/memorial

2. act of celebration (in positive recognition of something) [both act + cause/reason]

2. solemn act of recognition/acknowledgement

3. joyful or celebratory symbolic/ceremonial rite [both act + cause/reason]

3. solemn symbolic/ceremonial rite

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to act itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to reason, cause or motive

Same as above 3 stems referring to act itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to reason, cause or motive

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  party, celebration, fête, festivities, ceremony

 

-QT-   ‘DEGREE OF PLEASURE/FULFILLMENT/SATISFACTION/HAPPINESS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of physical/sensual pleasure [both feeling and cause]

1. degree of spiritual/value-based/philosophically-oriented pleasure/contentment [both feeling and cause]

2. degree of emotional/psychological contentment/pleasure [both feeling and cause]

2. degree of happiness
(spiritual/value-based/philosophically-oriented) [both feeling and cause]

3. degree of physical satisfaction/satiety [both feeling and cause]

3. degree of emotional/psychological satisfaction and fulfillment [both feeling and cause]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to the affective state/feeling/experience itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the cause or causal context, e.g., ‘a pleasant visit’ or ‘a satisfying meal’

Same as above 3 stems referring to the affective state/feeling/experience itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the cause or causal context, e.g., ‘a happy home’ or ‘a fulfilling job’

Derivations:  gratify/gratification, satiety, ecstasy, joy

 

--  ‘SIBLING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sibling

1. step-sibling

2. brother

2. step-brother

3. sister

3. step-sister

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. half-sibling [shared mother]

1. half-sibling [shared father]

1. step-sibling [stepmother is mother of other sibling]

1. step-sibling [stepfather is father of other sibling]

2. half-brother [shared mother]

2. half-brother [shared father]

2. step-brother [stepmother is mother of other sibling]

2. step-brother [stepfather is father of other sibling]

3. half-sister [shared mother]

3. half-sister [shared father]

3. step-sister [stepmother is mother of other sibling]

3. step-sister [stepfather is father of other sibling]

  
-QŢL- Lithium    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-QŢŘ- Germanium          — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-QV-   ‘RESILIENCE/DELICATENESS’ (= CAPACITY FOR RECOVERY) The pattern of stems for this root follows that of the root -KV-.

-QW- ‘FOOD PLANT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. plant grown/harvested/cultured as food source

1. food dish/serving derived from plant

2. vegetable

2. food dish/serving derived from vegetable

3. fruit

3. food dish/serving derived from fruit

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to plant itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to edible part of plant or plant in edible condition following any necessary processing

Same as above 3 stems referring to serving/dish itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to consumption/ingestion  of the dish

SSD Derivatives for INFORMAL stems:  stem, leaf, seed/nut, pod/fruit, flower, juice, sap, rhizome, root/tuber
SSD Derivatives for FORMAL stems:  soup, stew, salad, sauteed, deep-fried, boiled, steamed, baked, fancy/other style of preparation

 

-Q’- ‘INTERIORITY / POSITION OR ORIENTATION INSIDE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. position/orientation somewhere inside (of), i.e., underneath or on other side of surface or boundary layer

1. entirety of an interior space/compartment (e.g., of house, car, device, etc.)

2. position/orientation somewhere inside of (2-D context), i.e., within the area defined by a boundary line

2. entirety of an interior surface / functional planar area within the boundaries of

3. position/orientation somewhere inside of (3-D context), i.e., within the volume set off by a boundary membrane, surface/wall, etc.

3. entirety of an interior volume / functional space within the boundaries of

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems with focus on interior position (i.e. position other than on inside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on position on interior surface (i.e. position on inside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on interior position (i.e. position other than on inside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on position on interior surface (i.e. position on inside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

 

-Qh- ‘TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRIT / RELIGION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. one’s spirit or soul / transcendent “connection” to the universe

1. religious belief

2. universal oneness / metaphysical interconnectedness between all things

2. feeling of religious fervor or zeal

3. striving/quest for ultimate destiny/purpose/”Omega point”

3. striving/quest for salvation/redemption/enlightment (specific to particular religion)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to ontological nature

same as above 3 stems referring to belief/faith therein

same as above 3 stems referring to ontological nature

same as above 3 stems referring to belief/faith therein

 

-R- ‘THOUGHT/IDEA/REASON’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. think / cogitate + thought or idea cogitated

1. to reason / use logic + content of reasoning

2. consider + idea considered

2. analyze + object of analysis

3. propose + argument or idea proposed

3. abstract (= to mentally construct) + concept

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. think / cogitate; an act of thinking

1. a thought / an idea

1. to reason / use logic; act of reasoning

1. object of reasoning

2. consider; an act of consideration

2. a thought or idea considered

2. analyze; act of analysis

2. object of analysis

3. propose / posit

3. a proposition or argument

3. to abstract / conceive / conceptualize; act of abstraction or conception

3. concept

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: ponder, deliberate/deliberation, plan, contemplate, theory, hypothesis, deduce/deduction, postulate, infer(ence), judge, conclude/conclusion


-RB- ‘SPIRAL MOTION ALONG VERTICAL PLANE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RBW-   ‘LEOPARD’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RC- ‘ARC / PARABOLIC MOTION RELATIVE TO GRAVITY’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

--  ‘SWITCH BACK / VEER’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-- ‘CURVED MOTION / CURVE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RČP’- Cadmium     —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-           

-RČT’- Boron    —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-     

-RD- ‘GENERIC OR OBLIQUE SPIRAL MOTION’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RDh-  ‘BELT’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-RDhŘ- Magnesium     —    Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-   

-RDhV- Cobalt     —   Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-     

-RDhW    ‘GULL’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RF- ‘CIRCULAR VECTOR MOTION’ (i.e., “corkscrew” motion) The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RFQ- griddle -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RFŽ- Antimony —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-RG- ‘SPIRAL MOTION ALONG HORIZONTAL PLANE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RGY- Chromium          —    Pattern of stems is the same as -XL- 

-RGZD-    ‘IGUANA’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RGZW-    ‘CROCODILE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RJ- ‘paint’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-RK- ‘PLANAR RANGE OF MOTION’ (= randomly directed movement within/throughout 2-dimensional horizontal plane) The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RKR-   ‘TIGER’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RL- ‘LINEAR/HORIZONTAL MOTION ALONG Y-AXIS RELATIVE TO TOPICAL REFERENT’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-- ‘SPIRAL VECTOR MOTION (i.e., corkscrew motion with increasing or decreasing amplitude) The stems of this root are patterned after the root

-RM- ‘LINEAR/HORIZONTAL MOTION ALONG X-AXIS RELATIVE TO TOPICAL REFERENT’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RMKh- Palladium        — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-      

-RMQ’- Zinc          —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL- 

-RMST-    ‘SEA LION’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RMXh- Beryllium    —   Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-   

-RN-‘GENERIC OR OBLIQUE CIRCULAR MOTION’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RNR- Arsenic —   Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-RNTR-    ‘SEAL’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RP- ‘VERTICAL RANGE OF MOTION’ (= randomly directed movement within/throughout 2-dimensional vertical plane) The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RPC’-Vanadium    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-RPČ’-Tungsten    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-RPTh- simmer -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RPŢ- sautee -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RPV- sun-dry -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RPX- slow-cook (e.g., in crockpot, Dutch oven, claypot, Tandoori pot, etc.) -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

 

-RP’- ‘BODY PART’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. body part/component  (e.g., appendage, section, organ, gland, tissue, fluid, etc.)

1. bodily tissue/flesh/sinew

2. bodily organ

2. secondary organ/gland

3. bone

3. bodily fluid/secretion

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  body, corpse
SSD Affix with Informal Stem 3:  1) spine 2) rib 3) skull 4) limb bone (tibia, femur, ulna, etc.) 5) bone of hand/foot  6) “shield” bone (e.g., patella, shoulder blade) 7) hipbone
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 1:  1) membrane 2) tendon 3) ligament 4) nerve 5) muscle 6) skin/integument 7) sphincter/valve 8)  marrow 9) fat/gristle
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 2:  1) gonad 2) esophagus 3) adrenal gland 4) bowel/intestine 5) brain 6) lung 7) kidney 8) pancreas 9) liver
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 3:  1) tear  2) bile 3) semen 4) pus 5) blood 6) mucus/mucal secretion 7) saliva 8) lymph  9) sweat/perspiratioin

 

-RPh-  ‘TROPICAL DRY SEASON’ — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -MX-.

-RQ- Silver     —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-  

-RQ’- ‘mineral’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-RQhW-    ‘CAMEL’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

 

-RR-  ‘CAT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of mammalian/avian/reptilian genus

1. member of genus as resource

2. male member of genus

2. male as resource

3. female member of genus

3. female as resource

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wild member of genus

1. bred or domesticated member of genus

1. member of genus as food/prey

1. member of genus as derived resource or processed product

2. wild male member of genus

2. bred or domesticated male member of genus

2. male as food/prey

2. male as derived resource or processed product

3. wild female member of genus

3. bred or domesticated female member of genus

3. female as food/prey

3. female as derived resource or processed product


-RS- ‘CIRCULAR MOTION IN HORIZONTAL PLANE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RSČ-   ‘MAPLE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RSF-   ‘ASH’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RSK-  ‘CYPRESS’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RSL-  ‘BEECH’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RSM-  ‘MAHOGANY’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RSN-      FLAX The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RSP-   ‘EUCALYPTUS’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RSPh- barbecue -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RSQ-   ‘MAGNOLIA’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RSQh- Nickel  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-  

-RST-  ‘REDWOOD’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RSTR-   ‘GAZELLE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RST’- flash-fry -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RSV-   ‘LARCH’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RSX- pressure-cook -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-- ‘CIRCULAR MOTION IN VERTICAL PLANE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RŠČ-   ‘ELM’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŠF-     ‘POPLAR’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŠK-     ‘ALDER’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŠL-   ‘YEW’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŠM-     ‘ALMOND’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŠN-     ‘CHESTNUT’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŠP-   ‘SPRUCE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŠQ- broil -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RŠQh- stew -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RŠT- parboil -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RŠT’- grill -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RŠTh- steam -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RŠŢ- poach -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RŠV- toast -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RT-‘2-DIMENSIONAL EXTERNAL CIRCUMLATIVE MOTION / MOVEMENT AROUND/ALONG PERIPHERY OR OUTSIDE EDGE’ encircle, surround The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RTK- sear -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RTĻ-    ‘ORANGUTAN’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RTN- brew -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-RTP- smoke -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-

-RTW- ‘HORSE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RT’-  ‘SUMMER’ — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -MX-.

-RThW- iridium    —   Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

--‘2-DIMENSIONAL INTERNAL CIRCUMLATIVE MOTION / MOVEMENT AROUND/ALONG BOUNDARY OR INSIDE EDGE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K- The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

-RŢK-   ‘BIRCH’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŢL-    ‘TOAD’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RŢM-    ‘CEDAR’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŢN-   ‘OAK’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŢQ-   ‘PINE’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŢQ’- Gallium    —   Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-RŢT’- Phosphorus     —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-    

-RŢV-   ‘PALM’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-

-RŢW-   ‘WALNUT’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -Ph-


-RV- ‘PREGNANCY/GESTATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. pregnancy/gestation

Same as INFORMAL stems but referring exclusively to human pregnancy/gestation

2. manifestation of morning sickness

3. contraction during labor

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical condition/state

Same as above 3 stems referring to psycho-physiological effect/impact

Morphological Derivatives:  conception, labor, birth/delivery


-RVP’- Rubidium    —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-      

-RX-  ‘OBLIQUELY LINEAR  MOTION (relative to XYZ grid) The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

 

-RXh- ‘COMPONENT OF NERVOUS SYSTEM’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. component of CNS

1. brain

2. neurological process

2. spinal cord

3. component of peripheral nervous system

3. nerve

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical tissue

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on neurological function

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical tissue

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on neurological function

sympathetic nerve, parasympathetic nerve, vegus nerve
neuron, neuron firing, synapse, synaptic uptake, axon, dendrite, glial cell-->blood-brain barrier

 

-RZ- ‘3-DIMENSIONAL EXTERNAL CIRCUMLATIVE MOTION / MOVEMENT AROUND/ALONG PERIPHERY OR SURFACE OF’

-RZD-   ‘ALLIGATOR’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-RZW-    ‘YAK’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

--   ‘SARI’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-RŻW-   ‘LIZARD’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-- ‘3-DIMENSIONAL INTERNAL CIRCUMLATIVE MOTION / MOVEMENT AROUND/ALONG INTERNAL 3-D BOUNDARY OF’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -K-

 

-Ř- ‘POSSESSION / OWNERSHIP’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. have/possess; physical possession (temporary/circumstantial and alienable – e.g., a library book in one’s hand)

1. have/possess/own; possession, piece of property (alienable but quasi-permanent by law/right and in one’s immediate possession-, e.g., a hat I bought and am wearing)

2. have/possess; possession (circumstantial and affective + (quasi-) inalienable, either permanent or temporary – e.g., a medical condition, an office at work I occupy, a seat at a cinema showing)

2. have/possess/own; possession, piece of property (alienable but quasi-permanent by law/right, not necessarily in one’s immediate possession -, e.g., a hat I bought/own but am not necessarily wearing)

3. have/possess; possession (genetic, intrinsic and inalienable, but not considered property – e.g., a sibling, a child, a limb, a memory)

3. have/possess/own; possession, piece of property (quasi-permanent and legally inalienable except through formal/legal separation process – e.g., a house I own, a pet dog I registered

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to act/state of possession

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing possessed

Same as above 3 stems referring to act/state of possession/ownership

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing owned; piece of property


-ŘB- lumpy texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘBG-    ‘LEMUR’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŘC- hard + natural mix of smooth/rough (like a rock) texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘC’- marinade -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.


-ŘČ- ‘GASTRO-INTESTINAL/UROLOGICAL COMPONENT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. gastrointestinal component (body part + function)

1. urological component (body part + function)

2. gastrointestinal process / digestive process / digest(ion) (physical process + nutritive function

2. urological process (physical process + waste elimination function)

3. (amount/piece of) feces, dung, excrement

3. (an amount of) urine, piss, pee

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part/process  itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function/purpose

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  gastrointestinal tract
SSD Affix with Informal Stem 1:  esophagus, stomach, guts/viscera/intestine, jejenum, ilium, colon, rectum, small intestine/bowel, anus
SSD Affix with Formal Stem 1:  kidney, ureter, adrenal gland, bladder, urethra


-ŘČ’- coarse (like handling gravel) texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘCh- numbing (= loss of sensation) texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘD- ‘GASTRONOMIC PAROXYSM’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) burp/belch [act + sound]

FORMAL Stems for this root have the same meanings as INFORMAL stems except that the act/sound is deliberate (i.e., volitional)

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) vomiting [act + sound]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) fart [act + sound]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) burp/belch [act]

1. affective (i.e., unwilled) burp/belch [sound]

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) vomiting [act]

2. affective (i.e., unwilled) vomiting [sound]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) fart [act]

3. affective (i.e., unwilled) fart [sound]

 

-ŘDŘ- Krypton    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŘDW- soggy/waterlogged/moist texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘDh- liquidy texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘF- gooey texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘG- ‘TUNIC’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-ŘGL- plastic-like texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘGR-    ‘PANTHER (PUMA/COUGAR)’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŘGŘ- downy texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘGW-    ‘PANTHER (JAGUAR)’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŘGZ-    ‘GIRAFFE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŘJ- gritty (like fine sand) texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘJW-   ‘ELK’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŘK- hard + semi-smooth (like wood) texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘKW-    ‘TURKEY’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŘK’- “cobwebby”/like cotton-candy texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘKh- rough (like sandpaper) texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘL- ice-cold, numbing cold texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘĻ- chewy texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘM- ‘silk’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŘMN- Osmium    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŘN- gummy texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘQR- metallic texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŘSW- ‘LAVENDER’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-ŘThW   ‘OSTRICH’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŘZW - ‘BISON/BUFFALO’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

 

-S- ‘CHANGE/ALTER/DEVIATE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. change (from one state to another) [both appearance/structure and behavior/function]

1. alter, modify; alteration, modification [both appearance/structure and behavior/function]

2. vary; variety, variation [both appearance/structure and behavior/function]

2. diversify, permutate; permutation, diversification  [both appearance/structure and behavior/function]

3. deviate; deviation [both appearance/structure and behavior/function]

3. modulate, control variance in the state of; modulation  [both appearance/structure and behavior/function]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems with focus on appearance/structure

same as above 3 stems with focus on behavior/function

same as above 3 stems with focus on appearance/structure

same as above 3 stems with focus on behavior/function

Derivations:  mutate, convert, shift, tamper with, transform, transition

 

-SCh- ‘GRAY’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

-SF- ‘bottom, lowest part of, foundation’ The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.


-SK-  ‘GENERIC MAMMAL/AVIAN/REPTILE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of mammalian/avian/reptilian genus

1. member of genus as resource

2. male member of genus

2. male as resource

3. female member of genus

3. female as resource

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wild member of genus

1. bred or domesticated member of genus

1. member of genus as food/prey

1. member of genus as derived resource or processed product

2. wild male member of genus

2. bred or domesticated male member of genus

2. male as food/prey

2. male as derived resource or processed product

3. wild female member of genus

3. bred or domesticated female member of genus

3. female as food/prey

3. female as derived resource or processed product

MAT Suffix used to indicate life stage: e.g., foal, fawn, yearling, adult, etc.
SSD Suffix used as follows: 1) egg, 2) milk, 3) oil/secretion/venom, 4) fat, 5) skin/hide, 6) tail, 5) tusk/horn, 8) fur/feathers 9) flesh/meat

 

-SKh-  ‘PATH/WAY/COURSE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. course/way [taken]

1. route [taken]

2. [marked] path [taken]

2. road [taken]

3. trajectory; move(ment) along a trajectory / “sail” / arc

3. channel [taken]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the course/way/path/trajectory itself

same as above 3 stems referring to following or travelling along the course/path/trajectory

same as above 3 stems with focus on the route/road/channel itself

same as a stems with focus on following or travelling along the route/road/channel

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: walkway, sidewalk, highway, street, slide, tunnel, conduit


-SKhW-    ‘ROBIN’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

 

-SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. cloud/flume of gas/vapor + gas/vapor itself

1. Same as INFORMAL Stem No. 1 but referring to substance in an abnormal solid or liquid state

2. cloud/flume of gas as derived from other substance + the derived gas itself

2. thing/object composed of gas + its function/purpose

3. source of a gas

3. status of substance/compound as being or not being in a gaseous state

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. cloud/flume of a gas or vapor

1. gas/vapor itself

1. substance in an abnormal solid (i.e., frozen) state

1. substance in an abnormal liquid state

2. cloud/flume of gas as derived from other substance

2. the derived gas itself

2. thing created, molded or manufactured from a gas

2. function/purpose of thing created, molded or manufactured from a gas

3.  natural source of a gas

3.  derived or artificially created source of gas

3. gaseous/vapor state

3. semi-gaseous state (combination or gaseous + non-gaseous state, e.g., as w/ CO2 vapor rising from dry ice)

-SM-     ‘TERRAIN-BASED/GEOGRAPHICAL ELEVATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. relative elevation in comparison to other geological feature/terrain

FORMAL Stems for this root have the same meanings as INFORMAL stems except that context is geo-political or in terms of formal property [geographic ownership]

2. geological layer/stratum

3. flatland area/plain

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. valley / geographic depression relative to surrounding terrain

1. hill / upland / raised geographic feature relative to surrounding terrain

2. deep underground

2. near-surface / shallow [in terms of depth underground]

3. plateau / raised flat-topped geographic feature relative to surrounding terrain

3. ridge / crest / flat-linear edge between different geographic/geologically-based elevations

 

 

-SN - ‘SENSE OF TASTE / THE TASTE OF SOMETHING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. to taste a taste (taste faculty + flavor tasted)

1. to taste for an anticipated/expected flavor

2. tongue/palate (tissue containing taste buds + taste buds themselves)

2. instrument/device for detecting flavor + flavor detected

3. imagine a taste (act + the flavor imagined)

3. create/manufacture a flavor + flavor created

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. to taste; faculty of taste

1. flavor

1. to taste

1.

2. tongue/palate  (as sensory organs of tasting)

2. taste bud

2. instrument for detecting flavor

2. flavor detected via instrument

3. imagine a taste in one’s mind

3. an imagined taste

3. create/manufacture a flavor

3. flavor created

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  tasty, savory, flavorful
SSD Derivatives:  1) bitter 2) chemical-like taste 3)  salty  4) foul/rancid taste 5) sweet  6) sweet & sour  7) sour 8)  hot (spicy)  9) umami

 

-SP-     ‘EXCHANGE/PURCHASE’
Note: The stems below are generally used in conjunction with PROCESSUAL versus COMPLETIVE version (See Secs. 5.3.1 and 5.3.2) in order to distinguish an offer of exchange from a completed exchange. Alternately, the distinction between MONOACTIVE and COMPLEMENTARY valence (Sec. 5.2) can be used for the same purpose.

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. exchange / swap

1. act of trade / act of barter

2. substitute / transpose / interchange

2. purchase / commercial transaction; buy(ing) and sell(ing)

3. change out / supplant / replace

3. invest(ment)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. exchange (focus on entity given)

1. exchange (focus on entity taken)

1. to trade for / acquire through trade; act of acquiring via trade

1. to trade away / give up through trade; act of given away via trade

2. substitute / transpose / interchange (focus on entity substituted into new function/place)

2. substitute / transpose / interchange (focus on entity substituted out of old function/place)

2. buy; acquisition via purchase

2. sell; act of selling

3. change out / supplant / replace (focus on entity newly placed)

3. change out / supplant / replace (focus on entity taken out of action)

3. acquire via investment; act of acquisition via investment

3. release interest in / sell one’s investment

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: commercial venture, a purchase, acquisition via trade, acquisition via investment; purvey, goods, thing sold, market, warehouse, buyer, seller, agent, business

 

-SP’- ‘DEGREE OF BODILY SLENDERNESS/FATNESS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of slenderness/fatness

same as INFORMAL stems except that degree of particular quality/property is unusual, abnormal, unexpected, or has been changed from expected norm

2. decrease in degree of slenderness/fatness; lose weight; become thin(ner); slenderize

3. increase in degree of slenderness/fatness; gain weight; become fat(ter); fatten up

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring specifically to physical size/girth/volume

Same as above 3 stems referring to psycho-physiological effect/impact

The stems of this root are commonly used with the SUF, EXD, FLC, PTW and Intensity affixes. 
MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  skinny, rail-thin, obese, plump


-SPh- ‘carbon dioxide’ — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-SPhW-  lettuce (plant/leaves of genus Lactuca) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-


-SQ - cook (= prepare food using heat) The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.


-SQW-  tomato The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-SQ’- oxygen — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-SQhW-  cabbage (plant/leaves of sp. Brassica oleracea capitata) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-SR- ‘LATITUDE / NORTH-SOUTH’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. north-south axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

1. latitude

2. north axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

2. north latitude

3. south axis/orientation/direction/areal designation

3. south latitude

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. north-south axial direction or orientation

1. north-south geographical or geopolitical areal designation

1. polar area

1. parallel [= line of latitude]

2. north direction or orientation

2. north geographical or geopolitical areal designation

2. north polar area (Arctic)

2. Northern Hemisphere

3. south direction or orientation

3. south geographical or geopolitical areal designation

3. south polar area (Antarctic)

3. Eastern Hemisphere

 

-- ‘COLLATERAL FAMILY MEMBER/RELATIVE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. paternal collateral relative

1. maternal collateral relative

2. paternal male collateral relative

2. maternal male collateral relative

3. paternal female collateral relative

3. maternal female collateral relative

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. paternal nephew/neice

1. paternal aunt/uncle

1. maternal nephew/neice

1. maternal aunt/uncle

2. paternal nephew

2. paternal uncle

2. maternal nephew

2. maternal uncle

3. paternal neice

3. paternal aunt

3. maternal neice

3. maternal aunt

 


-SS- air — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-ST- ‘COMPARISON/MEASUREMENT/WEIGH’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. compare/contrast

1. measure

2. discriminate/distinguish

2. discern

3. “weigh”/ponder choice/pro-con analysis

3. relate/collate/determine relationships between

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on act

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on purpose or desired outcome

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on act

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on purpose or outcome


-STR- diamond       — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-   

-STW-  rice (plant/seed of sp. Oryza sativa) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-STY-  bean (lima/snap/etc.: plant/seed of genus Phaseolus or similar) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-ST’- ‘metal/ore’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ST’W-  peanut (plant/seed/pod of sp. Arachis hypogaea) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-


-STh- boil -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

 

--   ‘FIVE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 5 / a quintet; to be 5 in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make five-faceted / having 5 uses or aspects / quint- / pent- / fivefold

3. fifth one in a sequence; be/make fifth in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 5 times the number of something; to quintuple / multiply by 5

1. a fifth / divide by 5 or into 5 parts

2. 5 times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 5 times

2. be of or make into 5 parts; separate(d) into 5 parts

3. to the 5th power; raise to the 5th power

3. to the negative 5th power; to divide by the 5th power of


-SThW-    ‘SPARROW’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

 

-SV-  ‘FEAR/FRIGHT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. non-volitional (i.e., affective) experience of a state/feeling/emotion; feel (an) emotion [state + content]

Same as INFORMAL stems except referring to a formal/institutionalized/symbolic expressions of the particular emotion.

2. act or action caused by non-volitional experience of state or feeling

3. cause or causal circumstance for non-volitional state/feeling

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on process itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on experiential state/feeling itself

Derivation:  panic


-SW- ‘PLANETARY BODY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. planet/planetary body

1. The Earth/Terra

2. moon/satellite of planetary body

2. The Moon/Luna

3. other spatial body

3. artificial satellite

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body

Same as above 3 stems referring to human interaction with (i.e., sighting, influence by, speculation upon, contact with, experimentation involving, etc.)

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body

Same as above 3 stems referring to human interaction with (i.e., sighting, influence by, speculation upon, contact with, experimentation involving, etc.)

SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 3:  asteroid, comet, cosmic dust, cosmic gas, cosmic ray, component of Oort Cloud, cosmic string, quantum filament
MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  Gaia, Gaia Principle/Hypothesis

 

-SX- ‘BAKE/SOMETHING BAKED’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. bake (something); something baked [method + result]

Same as INFORMAL stems except that context is that of a commercial venture, i.e., food for sale, as in a restaurant or grocery store

2. oven [= environment or primary infrastructure used for baking]

3. baking pan [= primary supporting interface for manipulating the food being baked]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. bake; baking (as a cooking method)

1. food cooked by baking; something baked

2. oven (as primary baking environment)

2. oven (as functional heating/cooking means)

3. baking pan (as supporting interface within the oven)

3. baking pan (as primary accessory/tool needed for manipulating, removing, shaping the baked food)

Derivatives:  baked goods, bakery, baker

-SXh- ‘DISEASE/DISORDER/MALADY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. chronic systemic illness/condition/ailment; to suffer from

1. acute abnormal/unhealthy condition/illness/malady/ailment; “come down with”

2. chronic illness/condition/ailment – infectious in origin; to suffer from a chronic infectious illness

2. infection; infect(ed), to “catch” a disease

3.  chronic illness/condition/ailment – ideopathic, genetic/neoplastic, or unknown origin

3. acute illness/condition/ailment – ideopathic, genetic/neoplastic, or unknown origin

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on underlying condition itself

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical effect, impact, symptoms, manifestation

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on underlying condition itself

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on physical effect, impact, symptoms, manifestation

 

-SY- ‘MANNER/CONDUCT/BEHAVIOR/DEMEANOR’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. manner (= the way something or someone acts or behaves)

1. method, the way something happens, course of action; conduct

2. guise, form; to take the form/guise of

2. behave/comport/conduct onself = outward display of one’s personality/thoughts/emotions/motives; behavior/conduct/deportment

3. practice/policy

3. bearing/carriage/demeanor

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the manner/form/practice itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect, impact or outcome

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the method or behavior itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect, impact or outcome

Morphological Derivatives:  process, procedure, regimen, strategy

 

-Š- ‘TEXTURE/TACTILE SENSATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. texture, tactile sensation (tactile sensation + physical-emotional reaction)

1. act/process to render (an object/entity having) a particular texture (tactile sensation + physical-emotional reaction)

2. material impact/benefit/effect of a particular texture to the object/entity having that consistency

2. psychological or emotional impact/benefit/effect of a particular texture to the object/entity having that consistency

3. material impact/benefit/effect of having a particular texture to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that texture

3. psychological or emotional impact/benefit/effect of having a particular texture to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that texture

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. object having a particular texture

1. the texture itself

1. act/process designed to render a certain texture

1. actual results of an act or process to render a certain texture

2. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical material impact, benefit, effect of a particular texture to the object/entity having that texture

2. actual material impact, benefit, effect of a particular texture to the object/entity having that texture

2. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical psychological or emotional impact, benefit, effect of a particular texture to the entity having that texture

2. actual psychological or emotional impact, benefit, effect of a particular texture to the entity having that texture

3. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical material impact/benefit of a particular texture to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that texture

3. actual material impact/benefit of a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

3. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical psychological or emotional impact/effect of a particular texture to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that texture

3. actual psychological or emotional impact/effect of a particular texture to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that texture

SSD suffix specifies reaction:  sensuous, delightful/fun, soothing, as-expected, surprising/positive, surprising/negative, annoying/irritating, painful



-ŠČ-  ‘being ultra-alert with senses heightened’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŠČ’- ‘spite’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŠČh-  ‘feeling of surprise, revelation and self-growth upon discovering that achievement of long-awaited vengeance or vindication is hollow and meaningless due to personal maturation or present irrelevance of original circumstances’    The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŠF-  ‘feeling of “devilishness” and spontaneous non-conformity’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-


-ŠK- ‘ARM’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. arm (as gestalt entity) [both physical body part and function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “arm” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. arm (as holder, support, carrier) [both body part and function]

3. arm (as protective extension of body) [both body part and function]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. arm as single body part

1. arm as reacher or manipulator

2. arm as limb (focus on part/whole relation to body)

2. arm as holder/carrier

3. arm as extension of body

3. arm as natural protective/defensive implement of body

 

-ŠKÇ-    ‘PIGEON’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ŠKŢ-   bicarbonate of soda       — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŠKY-  pea (plant/seed of sp. Pisum sativum) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-ŠKh-  ‘feeling of surprise, revelation and self-growth upon discovering that one can get past, and need not succumb to, feelings of defensiveness or “victimhood” upon being criticized, maligned, slandered, or disrespected. The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŠKhW-  corn, maize (plant/seeds of sp. Zea mays) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

 

-ŠL- ‘HUMOR/WIT/JEST’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. something funny or humorous = comical

1. a jest or prank; make a jest or pull a prank = act or situation designed to evoke humor

2. something witty = subtlely and cleverly humorous

2. a joke; make a joke  = communicated situation or message designed to evoke humor

3. something farcical = something humorous based in irony

3. something sardonic = double-edged humor based in sarcasm

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on the joke or source of humor

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on the humorous effect/impact

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on the joke or source of humor

Same as above 3 stems but w/ focus on the humorous effect/impact

SSD derivatives:  pun, riddle


-ŠM- ‘lower part or “half”’ The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.

-ŠNY- brine      —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-   

 

-ŠP- ‘BINARY REVERSAL / POLARITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. switch to opposing or complementary value

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Sec. 3.7.

2. switch or reverse [linear] direction

3. toggle between active/positive or inactive/negative state

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. set to positive, primary, or initial value

1. set to negative, secondary, or complementary value

2. change current course or direction

2. reverse course or direction

3. active / activate / turn on / render active / on / positive state

3. inactive / deactivate / turn off / render inactive / off / negative state

 

-ŠPR- marble      — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŠP’- ‘HUNTING & GATHERING/PLANTING & HARVESTING/SUBSISTENCE FROM THE LAND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. searching for and gathering/collection of plants, vegetable matter for purposes of sustenance

1. plant/sow and harvest an annual crop

2. nomadic hunting/harvesting, subsistance-style nomadic sustenance [practices + products]

2. plant/sow and harvest a permanent seasonal crop (e.g., vines, trees, bushes, etc.)

3. live off the land [hunting/gathering practice + product(s) derived]

3. manage crop(s) and practice animal husbandry [sowing/raising + reaping/product(s) derived]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the hunting or gathering process

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the products hunted or gathered

1. till/plow & plant seeds or seedlings

1.  harvest/reap an annual crop

2. raise/grow a permanent seasonal crop

2. harvest/reap a permanent seasonal crop

3. raise/grow crop(s) & manage domesticated food-producing animal(s)

3. harvest/reap crop products and process/collect animal products

Morphological Derivations:  to farm, a farm, practice agriculture
SSD Derivations:  slash & burn, subsistance farming, commercial farming,
SSD Deriviations for Formal Stems 2 and 3:  transplanting, grafting, hybridization, genetic modification

 

-ŠPh-  ‘mix of humor and shame one feels upon pulling a joke on someone or at their expense but the target doesn’t “get it” or remains ignorant of the joke’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŠPhW-    ‘LARK’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)


-ŠQ- ‘WAIT/AWAIT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. wait (for), await; waiting, a wait

1. vigil/a watch; be vigilant/watchful

2. expect; expectation; expected/impending

2. foresee; foresight; prospective/foreseeable

3. predict; prediction

3. prognosticate, forecast

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the process

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on what is awaited, expected, predicted

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the process

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on what is awaited, expected, predicted


-ŠQ’- roast -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-ŠQh-  ‘schadenfreude; malicious glee at another’s (implicitly deserved) discomfort or inconvenience’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŠR-  ‘discomfiture at having been socially snubbed or at being ill-prepared for a situation after believing that one was accepted or was well-prepared’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŠŘ-  ‘impatience due to feeling that time/resources are being wasted’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-


-ŠT- fry -- The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -SX-.

-ŠTL-    ‘OWL’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-

 

-ŠT’-  ‘ATTRACTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. feel/be attracted to (physical attraction to other person)

1. feel/be attracted/drawn to (emotional-philosophical attraction to inanimate thing or abstraction, e.g., a political platform, buying a certain car, etc.)

2. feel/be attractive (physical attraction to other person)

2. be attractive/seductive (emotional-philosophical attraction to inanimate thing, idea or abstraction, e.g., a political platform, buying a certain car, etc.)

3. act/gesture indicating or hinting of attraction to; “(give) clue/hint” (physical attraction to other person)

3. “selling point” / a “pro” (vs. “con”)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to viewpoint of others

Same as above 3 stems referring to viewpoint of party feeling attraction

Same as above 3 stems referring to viewpoint of others

Same as above 3 stems referring to viewpoint of party feeling attraction

MORPHOLOGICAL Derivations:  seduce, seduction

-ŠTh-  ‘anticipate a negative; dread’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK- 

-ŠŢ-  ‘externally-induced feeling/sense of contemplation/re-evaluation upon discovering or hearing of an option/alternative not previously considered (stereotypically accompanied by scratching one's chin and/or frowning while uttering a prolonged "hmm")’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŠV-  ‘solace, comfort in the face of sadness/grief ’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŠX-  ‘feeling of puzzlement and curiosity, a desire to solve a mystery’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŠXh-  ‘feeling of being “on edge”; at cusp of loss-of-control or loss of one’s actions/inhibitions’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŠY- ‘wistfulness, bittersweetness’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-


-T- ‘ALIVE/LIVING THING/LIVING BEING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. living thing; be alive / to live

1. domesticated or civilized being

2. [wild] animal (all orders)

2. domesticated animal

3. [wild] plant (all orders)

3. cultivated plant

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. male being

1. female being

1. domesticated or civilized male being

1. domesticated or civilized female being

2. male [wild] animal

2. female [wild] animal

2. male [domesticated] animal

2. female [domesticated] animal

3. male [wild] plant

3. female [wild] plant

3. male [cultivated] plant

3. female [cultivated] plant

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: life, vegetation, flora, fauna, wildlife; farm, farmer, breeder, livestock


-TF- ‘PSYCHOLOGICAL or PSYCHO-LINGUISTIC MANIPULATION/TREATMENT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. to fool someone (into doing/believing something); state of being fooled

1. state of delusion (both state + content)

2. to “play games” (with someone) = mentally manipulate via words/behavior/actions; state of being toyed with mentally

2. means of psychiatric treatment; component of psychotherapy

3. be mesmerized, entranced (by something)

3. hypnotic state; be hypnotized

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to state or process itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to state or process itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

Derivations:  to delude, to hypnotize, to “do a number” on someone mentally, to entrance


-TFŘ- ozone — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-TK- ‘upper part or “half”’ The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.

-TKÇ- mercury  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-TKR-  ‘PIG’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

 

-TKh- ‘THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPHEROID SHAPES/FORMS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sphere(oid) [rigid or solid]

1. ball-like form [flexible/mutable or hollow]

2. ovoid / elliptoid / round [rigid or solid]

2. ovoid /elliptoid / round [flexible/mutable or hollow]

3. torus / toroid (hoop/ring-like form with circular/elliptical/oval cross-section) [rigid or solid]

3. torus / toroid [flexible/mutable or hollow]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

 


-TL- ‘salt’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-TLW- ‘TEAL’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

 

--  ‘2-DIMENSIONAL CURVATURE/DISTORTION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. curve/curl/bent formation in 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the curvature itself + object manifesting such curvature]

1. volume of space defined/bounded by curvature or bending of a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the spatial volume itself + object manifesting such bounded space]

2. dimple/depression in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the depression itself + object manifesting the depression]

2. volume of space defined/bounded by a dimple or depression in a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the spatial volume itself + object manifesting such bounded space]

3. undefined distortion/blurring/anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the distortion itself + object manifesting the distortion]

3.volume of space affected by the undefined distortion/blurring/anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the spatial volume itself + object manifesting such bounded space]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. curve/curl/bent formation in 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the curvature itself]

1. object manifesting a curve/curl/bent formation in 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object

1. volume of space defined/bounded by curvature or bending of a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the spatial volume itself]

1. object manifesting a volume of space defined/bounded by curvature or bending of a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object

2. dimple/depression in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the depression itself]

2. object manifesting a dimple/depression in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object

2. volume of space defined/bounded by a dimple or depression in a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object [the spatial volume itself]

2. object manifesting a volume of space defined/bounded by a dimple or depression in a 2-dimensional planar surface or surface of 3-dimensional object

3. undefined distortion/blurring/anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the distortion itself]

3. object manifesting an undefined distortion, blurring or anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object

3.volume of space affected by the undefined distortion/blurring/anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object [the spatial volume itself]

3. object manifesting a volume of space affected by the undefined distortion/blurring/anomaly in 2-D planar surface or surface of 3-D object

Morphological Derivatives:  crease, pleat, wrinkle(s), curl up, crumple(d), wad(ded), zig-zag, groove/furrow

 

-TM- ‘SIGN/MARK/SYMBOL/VISUAL MEANS OF INDICATION/REPRESENTATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. sign, signal, gesture, indication (= general indication, not 2-D planar surface bearing graphic/written communication)

1. mark, token, single graphic representation

2. track, print, trail (=naturally produced bodily trace)

2. symbol, emblem, device, insignia

3. identifying characteristic or trait

3. formal representation

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to the indicator/sign itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content/meaning thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to the indicator/sign itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content/meaning thereof

signal, sign (= placque/board)

 

-TN- ‘LARGE IMPLEMENT FOR COUNTERING GRAVITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. ladder [object itself + use]

1. winch/windlass

2. stair

2. expandable boom

3. bridge; span

3. derrick

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function/use thereof

Same as above 3 stems referring to thing itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to function/use thereof

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES:  staircase, stairway

 

-TR- ‘GREEN’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

 

-- ‘APPEAR/MANIFEST/SHOW/EXHIBIT/DISPLAY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. appear/manifest/show = be/make observable to the senses of others; manifestation, appearance

1. exhibit; display

2. expose; exposure

2. show off, flaunt

3. bring/call attention to = make others aware of the appearance/showing of something

3. announce; advertise

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act of manifestation/showing

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on thing manifested or shown

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act of exhibiting or display

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on thing exhibited or displayed

Morphological derivations:  demonstrate, flourish, show off, display, spectacle, parade, promenade, procession, ostentation, gaudy, garish, pomp, pompous

 

-TT- ‘SALUTATION/GREETING/ACKNOWLEDGEMENT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. acknowledge/demonstrate awareness of

1. greet(ings) / salutation(s)

2. hail / get attention of / bring attention to

2. formal welcome or farewell

3. congratulate

3. socially introduce / to socially present

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on purpose or desired outcome

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on purpose or desired outcome

SSD affix for FORMAL Stem Nos. 1 and 2 by degree:  1) bow upon arrival/introduction 2) shake hands upon arrival/introduction  3) wave hand or arm upon arrival/introduction/seeing 4)verbal salutation only upon arrival/introduction/seeing 5) words used in greeting/salutation/farewell  6) say goodbye  7) wave goodbye 8) shake hands upon farewell/leavetaking 9) bow upon farewell/leavetaking

 

-TW- ‘OCCUPANCY/RESIDENCY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. entity present + presence

1. tenant + domicile

2. occupant + place occupied

2. resident + residence

3. denizen + claimed property

3. citizen + property

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. entity present

1. presence of entity

1. tenant

1. domicile

2. occupant

2. place occupied

2. resident

2. residence

3. denizen

3. claimed property

3. citizen

3. property

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: dwelling, quarters, population, community, town, village, city, hamlet, county, geopolitical area, state/province, nation, geopolitical bloc; nest, lair, den

-TXh-  SUBATOMIC PARTICLE

INFORMAL

FORMAL

subatomic particle + its interaction/effect (either elementary or composite particle)

hypothetical subatomic particle + its interaction/effect (either elementary or composite particle)

elementary particle + its interaction/effect (either fermion or boson)

antimatter particle + its interaction/effect (either fermion or boson)

composite particle + its interaction/effect (i.e., hadron, whether baryon or meson)

non-baryonic “dark matter” particle, (i.e., WIMP)

COMPLEMENTARY STEMS

COMPLEMENTARY STEMS

same as above three stems but with focus on the particle itself

same as above three stems but with focus on the particle’s interaction/force or effect

same as above three stems but with focus on the particle itself

same as above three stems but with focus on the particle’s interaction/force or effect

Formal stems P1/S1, P2/S1, and P3/S1 all have the following derivatives using the SSD1 suffix identifying the particular type of hypothetical particle and/or its associated interaction:
1) (Nambu-)Goldstone boson
2) (Nambu-)Goldstone fermion / goldstino
3) X boson
4) W-prime boson
5) tachyon
6) Z-prime boson
7) Y boson
8) gravscalar/radion
9) graviphoton/gravivector

Formal stems P1/S1, P2/S1, and P3/S1 all have the following derivatives using the SSD2 suffix identifying additional types of hypothetical particles and/or their associated interaction:
1) axion
2) axino
3) saxion
4) branon
5) dilaton
6) dilatino
7) majoron
8) plekton
9) anyon

The PLV1/1 suffix is used for the above stems where applicable to convey the corresponding antiparticle. The PLV1/5 suffix is used for these stems where applicable to convey the corresponding neurtral (non-charged) particle.

 

 

-TY-   ‘SENSE OF WONDER/ENTHRALLMENT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. non-volitional (i.e., affective) experience of wonder/enthrallment; feel wonder/enthrallment [state + content]

Same as INFORMAL stems except referring to a formal/institutionalized/symbolic expressions of awe, i.e., feeling of worship(fulness).

2. sense of magic caused by non-volitional experience of state or feeling of wonder/enthrallment

3. cause or causal circumstance for non-volitional state/feeling or wonder/enthrallment

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on process itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on experiential state/feeling itself

 

-T’- ‘EXTERIORITY / POSITION OR ORIENTATION OUTSIDE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. position/orientation somewhere outside (of), i.e., beyond or on other side of surface or boundary layer

1. the space beyond/outside/excluded from an interior space/compartment (e.g., of house, car, device, etc.)

2. position/orientation somewhere outside of (2-D context), i.e., beyond/outside the area defined by a boundary line

2. an external surface / functional planar area beyond/outside the boundaries of (e.g., the “out of bounds” area of a tennis court)

3. position/orientation somewhere outside of (3-D context), i.e., beyond/outside the volume set off by a boundary membrane, surface/wall, etc.

3. the space beyond/outside an interior volume / functional space outside the boundaries of

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems with focus on exterior position (i.e. position other than on outside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on position on exterior surface (i.e. position on outside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on exterior position (i.e. position other than on outside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

same as above 3 stems with focus on position on exterior surface (i.e. position on outside surface of boundary between interior and exterior

 

-Th- ‘(CRIMINAL) LAW/ADJUDICATION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. statute, a particular law

1. act of official law enforcement (enforcement authority + manifested act of enforcement/administration)

2. applicability of a statute, law to a particular situation or geopolitical area, rule of law

2. jurisdiction/applicability of enforcement powers to particular situation or geopolitical area

3. investigate an alleged violation of law; act of criminal investigation

3. try/adjudicate a criminal complaint, go to trial

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. statement (the wording) of a law or statute

1. application of, or compliance with a law or statute

1. authority to enforce law or statute

1. act/manifestion of enforcing/administering law or statute

2. applicability of a statute or law

2. state of being subject to, or required to obey/ comply w/ a statute or law

2. jurisdiction of law enforcement powers

2. state of being subject to the jurisdiction of a law enforcement entity

3. gather material evidence as part of criminal investigation, e.g., questioning of witnesses, viewing of records, inspecting clues and material evidence

3. act by law enforcement for purposes of criminal identification or apprehension, e.g., interrogation or component of sting-type operation, or legal “trap” set up

3. presentation of evidence in support of alleged crime; prosecution

3. formal weighing of evidence by judge or jury

Morphological Derivations: code of law, rule of law, rule on an adjudicatory matter, verdict, justice
SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 1:  obtaining of warrant/authorization to detain, seizure/detention of suspect, interrogation of suspect, gathering of evidence, arrest, detention in jail cell, indictment, preparation of prosecution, incarceration
SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 3:  stake-out/surveillance, reconnaisance, infiltration of mole, component of sting operation, identification of suspect

 

-Ţ-   ‘HEAD’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. head (as gestalt entity) [both physical body part and function]

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “arm” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. head (as seat of brain/mind) [both body part and function]

3. head (as entity’s primary “interface” area of body)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. head as physical body part

1. head as functional body part

2. head as physical seat of brain/mind

2. head as functional seat of brain/mind

3. head as “top” or “forward” part or “access” point

3. head as vital seat of identity

SSD Derivatives = parts of head 1) cheek  2) chin  3) upper lip [plane between mouth and nose] 4) forehead 5) temple 6) crown of head 6) occipital area [back of head] 7) socket area around eye 8) upper part of back of head 9) cheekbone


-ŢB- bounce/recoil <--> inertness/immobility — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

 

-ŢC- ‘AFFECTIVE/NON-VOLITIONAL MENTAL STATE/PROCESS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. mood; be in a mood

1. rationalization; rationalize

2. instinct; act/behave on instinct [state + content]

2. delusion; (be) delude(d)

3. psychic phenomenon, altered state of consciousness

3. dream [state + content]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to state or process itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to state or process itself

same as above 3 stems referring to content thereof

SSD Derivatives for Stem 3:  1) “high”, under-the-influence of a psycho-active substance  2) hallucination; hallucinate, (observe) apparition 3) trance 4) instance of telepathy 5) (experience) premonition/vision 6) synaesthetic experience 7) sensory illusion 8) out-of-body experience  9) state of prescience/clairvoyance

 

-ŢČ-  ‘DEGREE OF PAIN/LOSS/DISSATISFACTION/MISERY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. degree of physical pain [both feeling and cause]

1. degree of spiritual/value-based/philosophically-oriented displeasure/discontent [both feeling and cause]

2. degree of emotional/psychological discontent/pain [both feeling and cause]

2. degree of unhappiness/misery
(spiritual/value-based/philosophically-oriented) [both feeling and cause]

3. degree of physical dissatisfaction/lack [both feeling and cause]

3. degree of emotional/psychological dissatisfaction and loss/lack [both feeling and cause]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to the affective state/feeling/experience itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the cause or causal context, e.g., ‘an unpleasant visit’ or ‘a terrible meal’

Same as above 3 stems referring to the affective state/feeling/experience itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to the cause or causal context, e.g., ‘an unhappy home’ or ‘a miserable job’

 

 

-ŢK-    ‘THREE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 3 / a trio / a triad; to be 3 in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.5

2. be/make three-faceted / having 3 uses or aspects / tri- / threefold

3. third one in a sequence; be/make third in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 3 times the number of something; to triple / multiply by 3

1. a third / divide by 3 or into 3 parts / trisect

2. 3 times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 3 times

2. be of or make into 3 parts; separate(d) into 3 parts

3. to the 3rd power; raise to the 3rd power

3. to the negative 3rd power; to divide by the 3rd power of


-ŢKL- laughing gas, nitrous oxide — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME


-ŢKŘ- Helium   — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-ŢKY-  wheat (plant/seed of sp. Triticum aestivum) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-ŢKhW-  spinach (plant/leaves of sp. Spinacia oleracea) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-ŢK’-    ‘commitment/loyalty’  Derivations:  ‘intransigence’, ‘stubbornness’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŢKh- suppleness/pliancy/flexibility/ductility/bendability <--> stiffness/rigidity — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

-ŢL-   ‘numbness / emotional saturation’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-


-ŢLW- Hydrogen     — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-ŢLY- Chlorine   — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

 

-ŢM- ‘TWO-DIMENSIONAL SHAPES/FORMS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. strip [solid/rigid]

1. ribbon-like shape [flexible]

2. plane/planar [solid/rigid]

2. sheet-like shape [flexible]

3. tube/cylinder/cylindrical [solid/rigid]

3. tube-like shape [flexible]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

 

-ŢMW-  garlic The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-ŢMY- ‘carbon monoxide’ — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-ŢN- ‘TIME PERIOD/DURATION MORE THAN ONE DAY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. expanse of time/period/duration more than 1 day

1. subjective long-term period/era

2. lunar period / month

2. geologic era

3. solar year

3. ‘lifetime’; timespan from beginning to end of something

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above three stems w/ focus on elapsed time

Same as above three stems w/ focus on time during which

Same as above three stems w/ focus on elapsed time

Same as above three stems w/ focus on time during which

Use of SSD affix give equivalents to ‘decade’, ‘century,’ ‘millenium’, etc.


-ŢNY-   lime (substance)     —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL- 

-ŢPF- talc or talcum       —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŢPĻ- methanol, methyl alcohol    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŢPŘ- Nitrogen     — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-ŢPŢ- Fluorine — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-ŢPh-   ‘nonchalance/indifference’ Derivations:  ‘callousness’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŢPW- baking soda      —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-TPhW-  sorghum The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-ŢQ- ‘CONSISTENCY/MALLEABILITY/FLEXIBILITY/PLASTICITY/RHEOLOGICAL PHENOMENON’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. consistency, degree of malleability/flexibility/ plasticity

1. act/process to render (an object having) a certain consistency or degree of malleability / flexibility / plasticity

2. material impact/benefit/effect of a particular consistency to the object/entity having that consistency

2. psychological or emotional impact/benefit/effect of a particular consistency to the object/entity having that consistency

3. material impact/benefit/effect of having a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

3. psychological or emotional impact/benefit/effect of having a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. object having a particular consistency

1. the consistency itself

1. act/process designed to render a certain consistency or degree of malleability/plasticity

1. actual results of an act or process to render a certain consistency or degree of malleability/plasticity

2. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical material impact, benefit, effect of a particular consistency to the object/entity having that consistency

2. actual material impact, benefit, effect of a particular consistency to the object/entity having that consistency

2. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical psychological or emotional impact, benefit, effect of a particular consistency to the entity having that consistency

2. actual psychological or emotional impact, benefit, effect of a particular consistency to the entity having that consistency

3. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical material impact/benefit of a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

3. actual material impact/benefit of a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

3. assumed, expected, potential, or theoretical psychological or emotional impact/effect of a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

3. actual psychological or emotional impact/effect of a particular consistency to consumer/user/owner of object/entity having that consistency

 


-ŢQF- Radon   — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-ŢQŢ- Argon     — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-ŢQ’- tendency to disintegrate/crumble/fall apart <--> coherence/cohesiveness/compositional integrity — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

-ŢQh-   ‘torpor/lethargy’ Derivations: ‘stupor’, ‘catatonia’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

-ŢQhW-  lentil (plant/seeds of sp. Lens culinaris) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-ŢR-  table sugar    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŢŘ- ‘edge’ The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.

-ŢT- limpness/flaccidity <--> stiffness/rigidity — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

-ŢTL- Neon    — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-ŢTŘ- Xenon — Pattern of stems follows those of the root: -SL- ‘GAS / FLUME’

-ŢTh- brittleness <--> resiliency — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

-ŢT’- flimsiness/fragility <--> resiliency/strength — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

-ŢV- jiggliness <--> inertness/immobility — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.


-ŢW- ‘WEATHER CONDITION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. (current) weather condition

1. adverse weather condition

2. amenable weather condition (warm seasons)

2. adverse weather condition (warm seasons)

3. amenable weather condition (cold seasons)

3. adverse weather condition (cold seasons)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to condition itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to effect/impact

Same as above 3 stems referring to condition itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to effect/impact

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES: climate, the weather, clime
SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 2:  mild, balmy, sunny, warm, still/calm, gently breezy
SSD Derivatives for Informal Stem 3:  brisk, cool, clear, still/calm, crisp, light snowfall, drizzle
SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 2: mugginess, heat, drought, summer rainstorm, summer flood, mud, hurricane, smog, hot wind
SSD Derivatives for Formal Stem 3:  fog/mist, cloudy/overcast, wind, rain, snow, blizzard, rainstorm, tornado/twister, flood


-ŢX- squeezability/compressability <--> stiffness/rigidity — The pattern of stems for this root follow that of the root -ŢQ-. This root uses the EXTENT/DEGREE suffix to specify the point on a sprectrum between the two extremes indicated.

-ŢXhW-  yam, sweet potato The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-’

-ŢY- ‘cordiality/benevolence’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -PK-

 

-V-     ‘PLAY/RECREATION/LEISURE’
(These stems are often used with the various Valence categories (Section 5.2) to specify the manner of participation)

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. play/recreate/amuse oneself (activity + feeling of enjoyment derived) = self-involved activity, e.g., play w/ a toy, play hide-and-seek, etc.

1. play/recreate (activity + feeling of amusement/enjoyment derived) = formal rule-oriented activity, e.g., a board game, a sport, etc.

2. element of participitory or self-involved leisure activity (activity + feeling of enjoyment/relaxation derived), e.g., a dance, a hike, fishing, camping

2. attend/view a formal entertainment (activity + feeling of enjoyment/diversion derived), e.g., view a show, live performance, movie, a sporting event, etc.)

3. practice hobby or pastime (activity + feeling of enjoyment/relaxation derived)

3. engage in (a) sport activity (activity + feeling of competitive spirit) for motive of formal competition, e.g., victory-oriented

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the thing/activity being enjoyed, i.e., a toy, game or diversion

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeling of amusement/enjoyment derived

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the thing/activity being enjoyed

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeeling of amusement/enjoyment derived

SSD Derivatives:
sports, toys, traditional board games, participitory outdoor games


-VBR-   ‘ELEPHANT’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-VDR-   ‘WOLF’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-VG-   ‘HELMET’ The stems of this root are patterned after the root -GV-

-VGL-  linoleum       —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-     

-VGR-    ‘KANGAROO’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-VGŘ-   graphite    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-VGW-   ‘DEER’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-VGY- acetone      — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL 

-VKR-    ‘ZEBRA’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-VKŘ-emery powder     —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-VKW-   ‘MULE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)


-VKY-  sesame (plant/seed of genus Sesamum) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

 

-VL- ‘CONTAIN / HOLD / CONTENTS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. contain(ment) via gravity (e.g., basin) + contents

Same as INFORMAL stems but in quasi-permanent context or by intrinsic nature as opposed to the INFORMAL stems which convey an incidental or circumstantial context

2. contain(ment) via enclosure / surrounding conveyance + contents

3. contain(ment) via imbuement / as ingredient; to “carry” [as integrated component or ingredient] + contents

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to contents

same as above 3 stems referring to the container

The SSD suffix provides the following distinctions: 1) bottle 2) jar/pot 3) barrel/cask 4) bin 5) vat / tub / basin [distinguished via SIZ affix] 6) can/tin 5) piece of furniture 8) purse/bag/satchel/pack 9) case/trunk

 

-VM- ‘CURVATURE/BENDING/OPEN LINEAR FORMS OR SHAPES’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. linear curve/curl/bent line at obtuse/open angle or tangential rate [the line itself + object manifesting such a line]

1. obtuse angle [degree of size/openness + object or bounded space manifesting such an angle]

2. linear curve/curl/bent line at acute/sharp angle or tangential rate [the line itself + object manifesting such a line]

2. acute angle [degree of size/narrownness + object or bounded space manifesting such an angle]

3. linear curve based on mathematical function (e.g.,  algebraic or logarithmic) [the line itself + object manifesting such a line]

3. mathematically determined form made of lines (e.g., polygon, quadrilateral, etc.) [pattern + object having the pattern]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. linear curve/curl/bent line at obtuse/open angle or tangential rate [the line itself]

1. object manifesting a linear curve/curl/bent line at obtuse/open angle or tangential rate

1. obtuse angle [in reference to its size, i.e., degree of openness]

1. obtuse angled object or bounded space

2. linear curve/curl/bent line at acute/sharp angle or tangential rate [the line itself]

2. object manifesting a linear curve/curl/bent line at acute/sharp angle or tangential rate

2. acute angle [in reference to its size, i.e., degree of narrowness]

2. acute angled object or bounded space

3. linear curve based on mathematical function (e.g.,  algebraic or logarithmic) [the line itself]

3. object manifesting a linear curve based on mathematical function (e.g.,  algebraic or logarithmic)

3. mathematically determined form made of lines [the pattern]

3. object manifesting a mathematically determined form made of lines

Morphological Derivatives:  fold, bend, pleat, zig-zag/“sawtooth”/serrated pattern, undulate/undulation, S-curve, wave(s)/wavy, bent, crooked, jagged, serrated, curvature
The above root use PHASE and the iterative series of affixes to specify extent/number/pattern of folds.
SSD Derivatives for INFORMAL Stem 3:  parabola, hyperbola, exponential curve

 

-VN- ‘DEGREE OF FUN/MERRIMENT/JOVIALITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. fun/ merriment; feel/be merry, have fun (both cause/source + feeling derived)

1. be jovial/jocular/jolly; express/manifest joviality, jollity

2. frolic, skylark = aimless, innocent pursuit of fun and amusement (both cause/source + feeling derived)

2. formal amusement (activity or cause + feeling derived), e.g., from/at party, fete, show, performance, etc.

3. whim, impulsive moment for purpose of amusement

3. revel; an instance of revelry

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeling of merriment derived

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeeling of merriment/amusement derived

carouse, with wild abandon, spree, escapade, jaunt, romp, party, fete


-VPŢ-  epsom salts     — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-   

-VR-  ‘GENERIC WATERLIFE ’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. member of genus

1. member of genus as resource

2. male member of genus

2. male as resource

3. female member of genus

3. female as resource

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. wild member of genus

1. bred or domesticated member of genus

1. member of genus as food/prey

1. member of genus as derived resource or processed product

2. wild male member of genus

2. bred or domesticated male member of genus

2. male as food/prey

2. male as derived resource or processed product

3. wild female member of genus

3. bred or domesticated female member of genus

3. female as food/prey

3. female as derived resource or processed product

SSD Suffix used as follows: 1) egg, 2) meat, 3) skin/shell, 4) fluid/ink, 5) smoked meat, 6) as bait, 7) as fodder, 8) as ingredient in food or as fishmeal 9) cooked meat


-VTY-  millet -- The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-


-VW- ‘ “HEART” / “ESSENCE” / VALUES’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. metaphorical/psychological seat of one’s personality and emotions, i.e., “heart”, “soul”, mind

1. personal value(s)/ what one holds dearest or as most important

2. degree/depth of one’s emotions / “feelings” / experience a certain depth of emotion

2. personal virtues/ personality traits

3. essence; essential subjective/intangible qualities of an entity

3. personal principles

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to volitionally controllable aspect(s) thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to non-volitional aspect(s) thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to volitionally controllable aspect(s) thereof

same as above 3 stems referring to non-volitional aspect(s) thereof

Derivations:  personality

 

-VY- ‘GOOD/BENEFICIAL’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. good [= beneficial to context]

Same as INFORMAL stems but applied to concrete, range-of-moment tangible contexts, whereas INFORMAL stems are applied to general, metaphysical contexts.

2. good [= morally right; beneficial metaphysically]

3. good [= advantageous/effective]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act, event or situation itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on desired outcome/reward/benefit


-VZY-  potash       —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-     

-VŽŘ-  washing soda     —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-VŽV-  zinc white, zinc oxide  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

 

-X-   ‘VISION/SIGHT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. to sight (see + thing seen); sight

1. observe / visually examine + thing seen

2. eye (functional organ + visible facial feature)

2. optical instrument + image

3. visualize / imagine / picture a visual image in one’s mind + image

3. create image / render an image

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. see; eyesight

1. a sight / image; to project an image

1. visually examine / observe

1. thing observed / visual evidence

2. eye (functional organ)

2. eye (visible facial feature)

2. optical instrument

2. thing observed via optical instrument

3. visualize / envision; act of visualization

3. an image / a vision (in one’s mind)

3. create image

3. image created

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: look (at), view, glimpse, glance, ogle, gawk, stare, spy, espy, peep, voyeur, panorama, scrutinize (visually), camera, telescope, microscope, binoculars, magnifying glass, lens, glasses


-XChW-  tea (plant/leaves of sp. Camellia sinensis) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

 

-- ‘WEAPON’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. hand-held or hand-thrown bladed weapon for cutting or stabbing [object + use]

1. ballistically launched projectile [projectile + use]

2. pointed-tipped handheld or propelled weapon for piercing [object + use]

2. explosive/incendiary substance/device [substance/device + use]

3. blunt force-driven hand-held or propelled weapon [object + use]

3. gaseous/chemical/other weapon [substance + use]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. bladed weapon itself

1. use/function of bladed weapon

1. ballistically launched projectile

1. use/function of ballistically launched projectile

2. pointed-tipped handheld or hand thrown weapon itself

2. use/function of pointed-tipped handheld or hand thrown weapon

2. explosive/incendiary substance/device

2. use/function of explosive/incendiary substance/device

3. blunt force-driven hand-held or hand-thrown weapon itself

3. use/function of blunt force-driven hand-held or hand-thrown weapon

3. gaseous, chemical or other weapon

3. use/function of gaseous/chemical/other weapon

SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 1:  dagger, switchblade, axe, sword, scimitar, bayonet
SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 2:  arrow, lance, spear, javelin, harpoon
SSD derivatives for Informal Stem 3:  mace, club, hammer, catapult fodder, shot from slingshot. cudgel
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 1:  bullet, shell, shrapnel, cannonball, shot, rocket, self-propelled missile
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 2:  bomb, grenade, plastic explosive, firecracker, dynamite stick
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 3:  gas irritant/poison, poison chemical vapor, liquid irritant/poison, radioactive compound used as weapon

NOTE:  In Ithkuil, guns, catapults, slings and all other firearms or devices for shooting/hurling projectiles utilize Degree 1 of the UTE suffix ('tool/implement for doing X'), as it is not the firearm/shooting device that kills but the projectile shot/fired from it. Thus a gun is a "bullet-implementer".  Care must be taken in assigning appropriate noun Cases or verbal Formats to stems associated with ballistic aerial weapons to distinguish the fact that it is the projectile that is the actual "weapon" and not the object it was fired/projected from. This is the good old "shoot bullets" vs. "shoot guns" vs. "shoot bullets from a gun" vs. "shoot him with a gun" vs. "shoot him with bullets from a gun" problem . This would translate into Ithkuil as "I bulleted him due to/enabled by a gun" or incorparatively as "I gun-bulleted him" using either the RESULTATIVE Format (literally translating as "I bulleted him as a result of concurrently gun-activating") or the INSTRUMENTATIVE Format (literally translating as "I bulleted him by the enabling means of gun-activating").


-XČW-  fluorspar     — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-          

-XČ’W-  gypsum   —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-             

-XL- ‘(QUASI-)SOLID SUBSTANCE (i.e., non-liquid & non-gaseous)’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. elemental/fundamental manifestation (e.g., chunk, drop, flume, bit, piece, etc.) of a (quasi-)solid material substance/compound + substance/compound itself

1. Same as INFORMAL Stem No. 1 but referring to substance in an abnormal liquid or gaseous state

2. elemental/fundamental manifestation (e.g., chunk, drop, flume, bit, piece, etc.) of a substance/compound derived from a another subtance +  the derived substance itself

2. thing/object composed of a (quasi-)solid material substance/compound + its function/purpose

3. source of a (quasi-)solid material substance / compound

3. status of substance/compound as being or not being (quasi-) solid

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. elemental manifestation (e.g., chunk, drop, flume, bit, piece, etc.) of a material substance

1. substance/compound itself

1. substance in an abnormal liquid state

1. substance in an abnormal gaseous state

2.  elemental manifestation (e.g., chunk, drop, flume, bit, piece, etc.) of a substance/compound derived from refinement, distillation or processing of material substance or compound

2. derived substance / compound itself

2. object created, molded or manufactured from a material substance

2. function/purpose of object created, molded or manufactured from a material substance

3. natural source of a (quasi-)solid material substance / compound

3. derived or artificially created source of a (quasi-) solid material substance / compound

3. solid (= hard to the touch)

3. quasi-solid (= non-gaseous and non-liquid but not hard; able to be deformed by touch)

-XLW- ‘YELLOW-GREEN’ patterned after the root -XT’- SSD derivatives: 1) extra light 2) pale (= mixed with gray) 3) clear, transparent 4) fluorescent 5) vibrant / bright 6) –ish 7) translucent 8) opaque 9) extra dark

 

-XM-   ‘NINE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 9 / a nonet; to be 9 in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make nine-faceted / having 9 uses or aspects / nono- / ninefold

3. ninth one in a sequence; be/make ninth in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 9 times the number of something; to nonuple / multiply by 9

1. a ninth / divide by 9 or into 9 parts

2. 9 times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 9 times

2. be of or make into 9 parts; separate(d) into 9 parts

3. to the 9th power; raise to the 9th power

3. to the negative 9th power; to divide by the 9th power of

    

-XMY- lye or soda lye     — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

 

-XN-    ‘BACK/DORSAL AREA OF BODY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. back/dorsal area (both body part and function)

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to the dorsal area of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, vehicle, plant, etc.

2. lower back/dorsal area (both body part and function)

3. upper back & shoulder blade area

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

NOTE:  Due to the bilateral symmetry of this body part, the above stems are often used in the DUPLEX configuration, the UNIPLEX form referring only to one side of the bodily part or the other.

 

-XP- ‘ONE-DIMENSIONAL (i.e., LINEAR) SHAPES/FORMS’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. point / dot [solid/fixed/rigid]

1. point / dot [flexible/movable/fluid]

2. line / linear [solid/fixed/rigid]

2. line / linear [flexible/movable/fluid] / string-like

3. hoop / ring [solid/fixed/rigid]

3. hoop / ring [flexible/movable/fluid] / loop

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

Same as above 3 stems referring to shape itself as abstract archetype

Same as above 3 stems referring to an object having that shape or form

 


-XPW-  onion The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-XPhW-  kelp (seaweed of orders Laminariales and Fucales) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-XP’W-  oat (plant/seed of genus Avena) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-


-XR- Gold   —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

 

-XT-    ‘EFFORT/WORK’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. exert / expend energy

1. perform / operate / act / function

2. work / labor / effort

2. job task / employment-related task; perform job task

3. handiwork / craftsmanship

3. act of industry or enterprise

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to activity itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to result/product

Same as above 3 stems referring to activity itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to result/product

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: strain, struggle, “fight”, toil, strenuous, persevere, operation, job, achievement, industry, enterprise, employment, employer, employee

 

-XTĻ- ‘LIQUID (OTHER THAN WATER) IN STATIC SETTING’ -- The stems of this root are patterned after those of the root -XW-.

 

-XT’- ‘RED’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. something red plus the color red

same as INFORMAL stems but referring to something tinted/painted/stained red

2. something light-red plus the color light-red

3. something dark-red plus the color light-red

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. something red

1. red

2. something light red

2. light red

3. something dark red

3. dark red

 

-XTh- ‘MASTERY/AUTHORITY/SERVITUDE/OBEDIENCE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. act/state of mastery/ownership/overlordship + servitude/subservience/subjugation to that mastery

1. military command/office + obedience/following of orders

2. act/state of supervision or formal oversight + following of orders/instructions

2. lordship, class-based rule/oversight by noble right + recognition/submission to that rule

3. take charge of; act/state of leadership + following that leadership

3. formal authorization, appointed/elected authority / political authority; being official, being authorized + recognition/compliance with that authority

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. act/state of mastery, ownership, overlordship

1. servitude, subservience, subjugation to mastery or overlordship

1. military command/office

1. obedience/following of military orders

2. act/state of supervision or formal oversight

2. following of orders or instructions from supervisor/overseer

2. lordship, class-based rule/oversight by noble claim or “right”

2. recognition/submission to claim of noble rule

3. take charge of; act/state of leadership

3. follow/obey a leader

3. formal authorization, appointed/elected authority / political authority; being official, being authorized

3. recognition/compliance with appointed, elected, official/political authority

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS:  boss, supervisor, master, owner, lord, commander, leader, person-in-charge, officer
SSD derivatives for Formal Stem 1:  general, commodore, admiral, colonel, major, captain, lieutenant


-XThW-  mustard (plant of sp. Brassica hirta / B. nigra / B. juncea) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

 

-XW- ‘WATER IN STATIC SETTING’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. container of water

1. (standing) body of water

2. water/moisture located in confined space

2. ambient/atmospheric water/moisture

3. (something) imbued/drenched with water; waterlogged

3. artificial body of water (e.g., reservoir)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. some water in/from a container

1. holder/container which holds water

1. water component of a body of water

1. the basin or bed of a body of water

2. degree of moisture contained

2. the volume/space occupied by water/moisture

2. water/moisture in the air or atmosphere

2. volume of air(space) containing the water or moisture

3. the water imbued within an object, substance, or substrate

3. the object, substance or substrate imbued/soaked with water

3. water within an artificial body of water

3. the basis or bed of an artificial body of water, e.g., reservoir bed

MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIONS:  lake, pool, pond, tern, tank, sink, canteen, cistern, puddle, sea, ocean, water vapor

 

-XX- ‘REPUTE/NOTORIETY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. repute/reputation

1. distinction/mark

2. public image/persona

2. degree of eminence [= power or influence]

3. notoriety [= degree of renown/recognition by others]

3. degree of prestige/status

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems referring to perspective of person reputed

same as above 3 stems referring to perspective of audience

same as above 3 stems referring to perspective of person reputed

same as above 3 stems referring to perspective of audience

This root is usually used in conjunction with the NOTORIETY affix.

 

-Xh-   ‘FACT/KNOW/LEARN/UNDERSTAND/EXPERTISE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. ontological fact;  observe/notice an ontological fact

1. study/practice [= formal process to acquire skill or knowledge
]

2. epistemological/conventionalized fact; know fact

2. realize/understand/comprehension via act of insight

3. experience/proficiency [= know via familiarity]

3. understand [= know via sharing/communication of knowledge]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act or faculty of knowing

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the fact itself, the thing known

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act or faculty of study/understanding

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the fact itself, the thing studied or understood

INFORMAL Stem Derivations:  find out, discover, determine, wisdom
FORMAL Stem Derivations:  learn, insight, enlightenment, education, school, scholar, student


-XhChW-  teff The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-XhČW-  ginseng The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-XhL- ‘oil (petroleum)’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-XhLY- RARE NATURAL ELEMENT FOUND ONLY IN COMPOUNDS OR MIXED ORES -- SSD Derivatives specify exact element:  1) Indium 2) Scandium         3) Yttrium 4) Tantalum 5) source compound for such elements 6) 7) 8) 9) primary source ore in which element is found       — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-      

-XhM- ‘rubber’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-XhMY- aspirin       —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-XhNW-  hemp, marijuana (plant/material of sp. Cannabis sativa) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-XhNY-  silica      —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-XhPŘ-  saltpeter      —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-       

-XhPW-  soya, soybean (plant/seed of sp. Glycine max) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-XhP’- Potassium  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-  

-XhT- ‘plastic’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-XhTR-  pepper (hot/sweet/bell pepper -- plant/pod of genus Capsicum) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-XhTŘ-  magnesia   —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-XhTW-  tobacco (plant/leaves of sp. Nicotiana tabacum) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW

-XhT’- Copper   —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-XhT’W-  amaranth The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-XhTh- Iron  — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-  

-XhW-  pepper (black -- plant/seed of sp. Piper nigrum) The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-


 

-Z-  ‘MIND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. mind / mental (faculty + use)

1. sentience / capacity for self awareness and self-identity + act of self-reflection

2. perception / awareness (faculty + use)

2. conscious + subconscious mind

3. instinct (faculty + practice)

3. intellect / wits /mind as efficacious tool

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. mental faculty / mind

1. application of mental faculty; act of mentation / use one’s mind

1. feeling of sentience

1. act of self-reflection

2. faculty of perception or awareness

2. use of perception or awareness; to perceive / be aware of

2. conscious mind

2. subconscious mind

3. instinct

3. instinctual act; to act instinctively

3. intellect; use one’s intellect

3. product of one’s intellect / intellectual feat

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: philosophy, metaphysics

 

-ZB-   ‘CONFLICT-BASED HOSTILITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. hostility / anger / be angry [both emotion and display/actions]

1. authoritative/official (i.e., police/military, etc.) use of force / act of aggression

2. threat(en) [reason for plus act]

2. threat of official/authoritative use of force

3. defend oneself / defense [reason for plus act]

3. official/authoritative defense

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. feeling of anger

1. show/display of anger

1. rationale/cause behind military agression

1. official/authoritative act of force/agression

2. cause/rationale for threat

2. effect of threat or being threatened

2. cause/rationale for official/authoritative/ military threat

2. effect of official/authoritative/ military threat or being threatened

3. situation/rationale for defensive act

3. defend / take defensive action

3. situation/rationale for official/authoritative/ military defensive act

3. defend / take official/authoritative/ military defensive action

Derivations:  peeved, conflict, intimidate, fight, battle, skirmish, military operation or campaign, war


-ZBŘ- iodine     —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ZBW- hairy texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

 

-ZD- ‘MANNERS/DECORUM/DIGNITY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. well-mannered, well-behaved; display a sense of manners

1. decorum/cultural appropriateness; have/display a sense of decorum, politeness and civility

2. dignified; have/display a sense of dignity

2. courtly/stately/refined; stateliness

3. noble, distinguished, cultivated; have/display a noble, distinguished or cultivated air

3. aristocratic, well-bred; having/displaying a sense of aristocracy, nobility and breeding

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the effect

Morphological derivatives:  polite(ness); courtesy/courteous


-ZDL- formalin, aqueous formaldehyde solution    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ZDR-   ‘BEAR’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ZDŘ-  milk of magnesium       — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-  

-ZDW-    ‘COYOTE’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ZDY- benzene    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

 

-ZG- ‘TRAGICOMIC-BASED VOCAL/FACIAL GESTURE’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. smile [both physical process and emotional/social connotation]

1. frown [both physical process and social connotation]

2. laugh [both physical process and the accompanying sound]

2. whine, moan [both physical process and the accompanying sound]

3. “light up” (referring to one’s face’) [both physical process and emotional/social implication]

3. crestfallen look, look of dejection (referring to one’s face’) [both physical process and emotional/social implication]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. smile [physical process]

1. smile [emotional/social connotation]

1. frown [physical process]

1. frown

2. laugh [physical process]

2. laugh [sound]

2. whine, moan [physical process]

2. whine, moan [sound]

3. “light up” (referring to one’s face’) [physical process]

3. “light up” (referring to one’s face’) [emotional/social implication]

3. crestfallen look, look of dejection (referring to one’s face’) [physical process]

3. crestfallen look, look of dejection (referring to one’s face’) [emotional/social implication]

SSD DERIVATIONS:  scowl

 

-ZGR-   ‘DONKEY’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

-ZGŘ- NATURALLY OCCURRING ACTINIDE OR UNSTABLE/RADIOACTIVE HEAVY ELEMENT -- SSD Derivatives specify exact element:  1) Actinium 2) Thorium 3) Protactinium 4) Neptunium 5) any radioactive isotope of an element 6) Astatine 7) Francium 8) Polonium 9) Technetium  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ZGW- ‘SHEEP’ (the stems of this root are patterned after the root -SK-)

 

-ZL-   ‘INVERSION’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. orientational inversion

FORMAL Stems for this root have the same meanings as INFORMAL stems except that context is formal/authorized/permanent/abstract as described in Sec. 3.7

2. unidirectional topological inversion [= mirror-image]

3. three-dimensional topological inversion [= inside-out]

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. orientational inversion along y-axis [= backwards]

1. mirror-image inversion along x-axis [= lateral/sideways]

2. mirror-image inversion along y-axis [= backwards]

2. orientational inversion along z-axis [= upside down]

3. orientational inversion along x-axis [= lateral/sideways]

3. mirror-image inversion along z-axis [= upside down]

 

-ZM-   ‘TEN THOUSAND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. a set or group of 10000; to be 10000 in number

FORMAL stems for this root have the same meanings as the INFORMAL stems except that they are applied in official, authorized, permanent contexts as described in Section 3.7

2. be/make 10000 -faceted / having 10000 uses or aspects / 10000 -fold

3. 10000th in a sequence; be/make 10000th in a sequence

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. 10000 times the number of something; to multiply by 10000

1. a 10000th / divide by 10000 or into 10000 parts

2. 10000 times [= iterations]; to be/make/do 10000 times

2. be of or make into 10000 parts; separate(d) into 10000 parts

3. to the 10000 power; raise to the 10000 power

3. to the negative 10000 power; to divide by the 10000 power of


-ZMY- rubbing alcohol, isopropyl alcohol    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ZN- burning, heat conductive texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-- slimy texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ZP- rubbery texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ZP’-  carrot The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

-ZPh- asbestos  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ZQ- slippery texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ZQ’- ‘brass’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ZQh- ‘vinegar’    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

 

-ZR- ‘THROAT (interior tract of neck)/GULLET’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. throat (= interior respiratory/digestive tract of neck)

FORMAL stems are the same as INFORMAL stems but applied to “throat/gullet” of a non-animal entity, e.g., a mechanical device, complex 3-dimensional form, plant, etc.

2. gullet (= tube- or trumpet-shaped digestive conduit from oral cavity)

3. interior chamber of throat (containing pharynx, larynx, plus epiglottal and glottal structures)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to physical body part

Same as above 3 stems referring to function

SSD derivatives:  pharynx, larynx, syrinx, epiglottis, glottis, trachea/windpipe, vocal fold/chord, hyoid bone / “Adam’s apple”


-ZT- ‘coal’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

 

-ZV- ‘ROMANTIC AND/OR SEXUAL RELATIONSHIP’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1.  state of sexual/romantic relationship

1. significant other / boyfriend or girlfriend

2.  erotic/sexual act; engage in a sexual/erotic activity

2. lover / sex partner

3.  to date / to court; pursue romantic relationship

3. dating partner

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. sexual/romantic relationship itself

1. emotional / hormonal basis underlying sexual relationship

1. boyfriend

1. girlfriend

2. sexual/erotic act itself

2. feeling of lust or other motive underlying sexual act

2. male lover

2. female lover

3. particular act involved in dating or courtship

3. feeling of hope or long-term goal of monogamous relationship or marriage underlying pursuit of romantic relationship

3. male dating partner

3. female dating partner

have sex, make love, cheat, monogamous relationship



-ZVW- NATURALLY OCCURRING ELEMENT FOUND ONLY IN COMPOUNDS OR MIXED ORES -- SSD Derivatives specify exact element:  1) Barium 2) Caesium (Cesium) 3) Hafnium 4) Niobium 5) Rhenium 6) Rhodium            7) Ruthenium 8) Strontium 9) Tellurium    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-   

-ZVY- SYNTHETIC ACTINIDE ELEMENT -- SSD Derivatives specify exact element:  1) Americium 2) Curium 3) Berkelium 4) Californium 5) Einsteinium 6) Fermium 7) Mendelevium 8) Nobelium 9) Lawrencium    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ZW- ‘top, peak, summit’ The pattern of stems for this root follow those of the root -G-.

-ZY- wispy/wafting texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ZZ- soft like a cushion texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

 

-Ż-    ‘DAY/NIGHT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. day [= 24-hour period]

1. calendrical day; 24-hour day designated for some human-defined purpose or societal convention

2. sky

2. the sky on a designated/calendrical day

3. degree of sunlight [use with EXN, EXD, SUF affixes, etc. from Sec. 7.7.6]

3. degree of sunlight on a designated/calendrical day

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

1. daytime

1. nighttime

1. daytime of calendrical day

1. nighttime of calendrical day

2. daytime sky

2. nighttime sky

2. daytime sky of calendrical day

2. nighttime sky of calendrical day

3. daylight

3. natural darkness

3. daylight on a calendrical day

3. natural darkness on a calendrical day

EXAMPLE MORPHOLOGICAL DERIVATIVES FROM THE ABOVE STEMS: dawn, sunrise, daybreak, evening, sunset, twilight, morning, evening, afternoon, mid-day, noontime, midnight, the “wee” hours [= Spanish ‘madrugada’]

The SSD suffix used with FORMAL Stems is as follows: 1) day of the week, weekday 2) workday, working day 3) personal day off, personal holiday, vacation day 4) scheduled holiday, societal day off 5) day of month 6) day commemorating a person, place, event, etc. 7) one's birthday anniversary 8) cyclic/periodic day (e.g., "payday," "milking day," "visiting day," etc.) 9) day of the year

FORMAL Stem 1 of this root is used with the SPS/1 suffix to give the word for ‘week’ and the SPS/4 suffix to give the word for ‘month.’

NOTE: Use of the FORMAL stems of this root is often in conjunction with Functional (FNC) Context, given that calendrical concepts and cyclic/periodic activities associated with particular days are societal conventions as opposed to being natural ontological phenomena.

 


-ŻB- ‘tar’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŻG- ‘steel’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŻK- complexly textured + hard/honeycombed (like handling a pine cone) texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŻK’- prickly texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŻN-  ‘GROWTH/CULTIVATION/HUSBANDRY’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. grow; stage of growth

1. stage of plant growth; grow (plant)

2. raise; look after; foster; function as guardian

2. till/cultivate/raise crop; stage of cultivation (e.g., etc.)

3. nurture / provide requirements for growth; husbandry

3. to garden/specialized act of plant nurturage (e.g., prune, graft, weed, etc.)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems referring to act itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to (anticipated) result/effect

Same as above 3 stems referring to act itself

Same as above 3 stems referring to (anticipated) result/effect

Stems of this root are often used with the MAT suffix
SSD Derivatives for FORMAL Stem 2:  plow, sow, irrigate, fertilize; hoe, reap, pick, dry, store
SSD Derivatives for FORMAL Stem 3:  prune, graft, weed, transplant, thin out
Morphological Derivatives:  shepherd, garden, gardener, field (of crop), crop, harvest, plow/plough, hoe, etc.

 
-ŻP’- ‘jade’  —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŻPh- cartilaginous texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŻQ- needle-like sharpness (e.g., a cactus) texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŻQ’- Plutonium     —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-      

-ŻQh- grainy/granular texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŻŘ- ‘quartz’ —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŻT- “pins & needles” sensation texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŻR- bristly texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŻV-  potato The pattern of stems for this root follows those of the root -QW-

 

-Ž- ‘LOVE/AFFECTION/EMOTIONAL BOND’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. act of affection / display of fondness or endearment

1. like / value as source of emotional fulfillment

2. familial/genetically-tied bond of love

2. love of country, heritage, race, etc.

3. act/feeling of romantic love

3. love of or emotional allegiance to abstract idea (e.g., freedom, life, wealth)

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act or display

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the emotion/feeling itself

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on act or display

Same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the emotion/feeling itself

Morphological Derivations:  love, tenderness, infatuation, obsession, passion, passionate
SSD Derivatives from INFORMAL Stem 1:  kiss, embrace, hug, hold hand, cuddle, caress, massage, pat, wink


-ŽB- feathery texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽBŘ- sponge-like texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽD- slushy texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽDR- papery texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽDW- fluffy/puffy/airy texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽG- mushy texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽGL- woolly texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽGR- dusty texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽGY- ammonia    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŽK’- viscous texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽLW-  plaster of Paris      — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-         

 

-ŽM- ‘PRIDE/EGO/RESPECT’

INFORMAL Stems

FORMAL Stems

1. feel proud (of oneself); feeling of pride (in oneself)

1. self-esteem

2. feel proud (of someone); feeling of pride (of someone)

2. respect/admiration

3. one’s feelings/sensibilities (e.g., to hurt one’s feelings)

3. ego/sense of self-identity; to sense (some)one’s ego / to gain an impression of someone’s self-identity

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

COMPLEMENTARY Stems

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeling

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the cause

same as above 3 stems w/ focus on the feeling

Morphological Derivatives:  arrogance/arrogant, haughtiness/haughty, pomposity/pompous, put on airs, vainglorious; magisterial/imperious


-ŽMY-  SYNTHETIC HEAVY ELEMENT -- SSD Derivatives specify exact element:  1) Rutherfordium 2) Dubnium 3) Seaborgium 4) Bohrium 5) Hassium       6) Meitnerium 7) Darmstadtium 8) Roentgenium 9) trans-Roentgenium synthetic element (i.e., Ununbium, Ununtrium, etc.)    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŽNY- HEAVIER LANTHANIDE ELEMENT -- SSD Derivatives specify exact element:  1) Dysprosium 2) Holmium 3) Erbium 4) Thulium 5) Ytterbium 6) Lutetium 7) 8) 9) lanthanide-based compound    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŽPh- powdery texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽQ- tingly texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽQ’- Uranium        —  Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-    

-ŽQh- sticky texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽVW- LANTHANIDE ELEMENT -- SSD Derivatives specify exact element:  1) Lanthanum 2) Cerium            
3) Praseodymium 4) Neodymium 5) Promethium 6) Samarium 7) Europium 8) Gadolinium 9) Terbium    — Pattern of stems is the same as -XL-

-ŽW- soft like fur texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

-ŽY- curvaceous/sensual (= soft/smooth/squeezable/rounded) texture/sensation -- the stems of this root are patterned after the root -Š-. This root is usually used with the DEGREE/EXTENT suffix.

 

 

 

Home Introduction 4 Case Morphology 8 Adjuncts 12 The Number System
FAQs 1 Phonology 5 Verb Morphology 9 Syntax List of Abbreviations
Links of Interest 2 Morpho-Phonology 6 More Verb Morphology 10 Lexico-Semantics The Lexicon
Updates / News 3 Basic Morphology 7 Suffixes 11 The Writing System Texts

 

Cover of Ithkuil Grammar book

 

For those who would like a copy of the Ithkuil Grammar
in book form, it is now available!

And while you’re at it, you can check out the novel I co-
wrote with my twin brother Paul, also now available!

(It’s a political thriller/science fiction story that explores the
philosophical implications of quantum physics, and features
Ithkuil as a “para-linguistic” interface to a quantum computer.)

Cover of "Beyond Antimony" by John & Paul Quijada

 

 

 

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